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Teil 2: Textproduktion

Aufgaben
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Part 2: Non-Fiction Text

$\blacktriangleright\;$ Thema:
Sarah Knapton, The Telegraph, October 30, 2014 (abridged);
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/agriculture/geneticmodification
$\blacktriangleright\;$ Aufgabenstellung:
Bearbeite Aufgabe 1 und Aufgabe 2.
1.
Text-based composition
"GM crops have polarised opinion since they were first produced by American scientists in 1982." (II. 25/26) Explain the quotation in relation to the text and then illustrate by giving further arguments against GM food.
(25P)
#geneticengineering
2.
Composition
Bearbeite eine der beiden folgenden Aufgaben:

a)
In age of globalization, multinational companies pose a threat to developing countries. Discuss.
OR
#multinationalcompanies
b)
Columbine, Blacksburg, Tucson, Newton, Aurora, Charleston … After each massacre, there are calls for stricter gun control in the United States. Discuss arguments for and against such a measure in the US.
(25P)
#culturewars#gunlaw
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Download als Dokument:PDF
$\blacktriangleright\;$ Aufgabenstellung:
Bearbeite Aufgabe 1 und Aufgabe 2.
1.
Text-based composition
"GM crops have polarised opinion since they were first produced by American scientists in 1982." (II. 25/26) Explain the quotation in relation to the text and then illustrate by giving further arguments against GM food.
Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es darum, dass du das obenstehende Zitat in den Gesamtkontext des Artikels setzt und weitere Argumente nennst, die gegen den Einsatz von genmanipulierter Nahrung sprechen.
Du solltest deinen Text in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss gliedern.
Mache dir zur zunächst Notizen, sodass dein Text eine gewisse Struktur besitzt.
Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es darum, dass du das obenstehende Zitat in den Gesamtkontext des Artikels setzt und weitere Argumente nennst, die gegen den Einsatz von genmanipulierter Nahrung sprechen.
Du solltest deinen Text in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss gliedern.
Mache dir zur zunächst Notizen, sodass dein Text eine gewisse Struktur besitzt.
The idea behind genetically modified crops sounded to good to be true when the topic came up during the 1980s in America: due to the groundbreaking developments in genetic engineering it could be possible to make plants and crops more resistant - famines would soon be an afterthought in a world which could produce as much food as necessary. Some people, however, were concerned about possible problems. Fast forward 30 years and people are still concerned within the EU. Is genetically modified food a blessing or a curse? Many politicians and regulators are reserved while GM scientists vouch for the safety of GM plants and crops. This argument provides the basis of the Telegraph article by Sarah Knapton.
Einleitung
Not only politicians and regulators are reserved when it comes to GM food but also a lot of customers. They fear that the engineered food will have a negative impact on their health. People who have a gluten intolerance point to genetically engineered wheat as the reason for their struggels when it comes to eating a normal piece of bread. Health-conscious customers leave GM food on the shelves and prefer products which are regional and organic. Especially during the last few years the run on organic food has been getting bigger and bigger.
Hauptteil
Angst vor negativen Auswirkungen beim Verbraucher
It is, however, not only the customers who are concerned. Farmers and environmentalists share their concerns as well when it comes to GM food. In contrast to the customer, they are not so much worried about the food but much rather about the new mutant organisms that could harm the environment and the 'normal' plants and crops. The spread of a invasive species means an interference with the natural ecosystem. Especially farmers who opted for organic farming will have to fight an uphill battle when the modified plants spread on their own fields.
Sorge bei Landwirten
While these arguments are reasonable, proponents of GM food will point to the Third World and the problem of hunger and starvation. Resistent crops, the proponents argue, would increase the agricultural output in the Third World. This would then help to feed everyone on a planet with a rapidly growing population. Opponents view this argument critically. They argue that GM crops are patented, which makes them expensive and mostly unaffordable for people in need. Using GM plants and crops in Third World countries would create a new form of dependency since poor countries would need to buy the special seeds from companies.
Möglicher Heilsbringer für die Dritte Welt?
Another voice of criticism comes from a rather moral point of view. Do we really want to play God and change the nature? Some would make the argument that genetical modification is a form of human hubris, overestimating our own abilities. Looking into the past, this way of bigger, faster, stronger has often times created potential perils. Opponents of GM engineering claim that we overestimate our own abilities. Religious people would make the argument that you should respect and preserve God's creation of the world instead of changing it.
Überheblichkeit
This shows that there are still concerns when it comes to genetic engineering. Is it the possible solution for the challenges that the world will face in the near future or is it Pandora's Box? Politicians in the Europian Union seem to take the scepticism into account and refuse to give scientists the green light. The pleas of the scientists may be justified. Yet questions remain. A possible solution could be to give countries with an advanced GM department, like Great Britain the nod for some kind of pilot project on this field in order to see whether our concerns are justified or not.
Schluss
#geneticengineering
2.
Composition
Bearbeite eine der beiden folgenden Aufgaben:
a)
In age of globalisation. multinational companies pose a threat to developing countries. Discuss.
Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es um deine eigene Meinung. Dabei ist es im Grunde genommen egal, ob du mit der Aussage übereinstimmst oder nicht. Jedoch musst du deinen Standpunkt nachvollziehbar darlegen können.
Daher ist es sinnvoll, dir vor dem Bearbeiten der Aufgabe deine Argumentationsstruktur zurechtzulegen. Du solltest deine Ausführung in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss unterteilen.
Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es um deine eigene Meinung. Dabei ist es im Grunde genommen egal, ob du mit der Aussage übereinstimmst oder nicht. Jedoch musst du deinen Standpunkt nachvollziehbar darlegen können.
Daher ist es sinnvoll, dir vor dem Bearbeiten der Aufgabe deine Argumentationsstruktur zurechtzulegen. Du solltest deine Ausführung in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss unterteilen.
20 years ago, the idea of globalisation was proposed as a strategy that would be benefitical for poor and rich countries alike. In the U.S. and Europe consumers would have their number of inexpensive goods made by people thousands of miles away who would also profit from this new job market. Trade barriers would drop in order to support even more international expansion and economic gains while geopolitical cooperation would flourish.
This vision of globalisation sounded nice and beneficial for all but what is the reality? Is globalisation a good thing or do multinational companies pose a threat for developing countries? I want to discuss this question in this essay.
Einleitung
The general complaint about globalisation is that it has made the rich richer while making the non-rich poorer. Big companies have their goods produced in developing countries, where costs and safety standards are much lower than in industrial natrons. The strategy behind this is plain and simple: cost reduction. This causes inhumane working conditions for workers in developing countries. Long working shifts, unhealthy and unsafe conditions are not uncommon. This is a recipe for disaster, as the example of a clothing factory in Bangladesh illustrates. In 2013, a clothing factory in Bangladesh collapsed, killing more than 1,100 people and injuring more than 2,500 people. This shows that cutting production costs is a dangerous thing, because it happens to some extent at the expense of the workers in developing countries.
Hauptteil
Ausbeutung von Arbeitern
Yet it is not only the workers who suffer from multinational companies but also the environment in developing countries. There a serious lack of concern for environment, mismanagement of natural resources and ecological damage done multinational companies. They take advantage of weak environmental laws and regulations which harm nature permanently.
Umweltverschmutzung
Another negative effect that multinational companies have on developing countries is their sheer size of power and wealth which they provide. With this ace up their sleeve they can bribe ministers and governments in order to achieve their goals and get permissions.
The other factor is lobbyism. Supporting certain politicians during a campaign can go a long way when companies help them on their way to power. While lobbyism and bribing is also a reason for concern in industrial neutrons, it is a much bigger threat for poor countries because the lure of money and wealth can be more tempting for poor people.
Bestechung & Lobbyismus
Thus far it seems as if globalization only has a negative effect on developing countries, where multinational companies exploit their influence. There are also positive effects which have helped poor countries to gain momentum.
Überleitung
Companies that decide to build their goods in poor countries create a multitude of jobs for workers. People can earn a salary and by that provide for their families. This opens up new chances for poor people. Multinational companies have special training programs to get them more qualified, which, as a consequence, gives them a chance for a promotion. Companies also invest in infrastructure and want to push for a better educational system.
This all leads to a economical potential for a developing country. Globalization can also help to spread democracy in the world, as the number of democracies has risen over the last 20 years. There is also more influx of information between countries.
positive Aspekte
Summarized it can be said that multinational companies are boon and bane for developing countries. There are negative effects like the exploitation of workers and the environmental pollution caused by these multinationals corporatron. Yet there are also positive effects like the creation of many jobs in countries which lack economical power. It has to be the job of these companies with so much influence to get rid of the negative effects and provide a basis that is beneficial for both sides.
Schluss
#multinationalcompanies
2.
Composition
b)
Columbine, Blacksburg, Tucson, Newton, Aurora, Charleston … After each massacre, there are calls for stricter gun control in the United States. Discuss arguments for and against such a measure in the US.

Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es um deine eigene Meinung. Dabei ist es im Grunde genommen egal, ob du mit der Aussage übereinstimmst oder nicht. Jedoch musst du deinen Standpunkt nachvollziehbar darlegen können.
Daher ist es sinnvoll, dir vor dem Bearbeiten der Aufgabe deine Argumentationsstruktur zurechtzulegen. Du solltest deine Ausführung in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss unterteilen.
Tipp
Bei dieser Aufgabe geht es um deine eigene Meinung. Dabei ist es im Grunde genommen egal, ob du mit der Aussage übereinstimmst oder nicht. Jedoch musst du deinen Standpunkt nachvollziehbar darlegen können.
Daher ist es sinnvoll, dir vor dem Bearbeiten der Aufgabe deine Argumentationsstruktur zurechtzulegen. Du solltest deine Ausführung in Einleitung, Hauptteil und Schluss unterteilen.
By now it almost seems comical. After every mass shooting that takes place in the United States, you will see the President talking to the nation, pleading for stricter gun laws with the result that nothing happens. Gun owners and the National Rifle Association will cry crocodile tears and express sympathy for the victims and their families, yet, at the same time, point stubbornly to the The Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, which allows people to keep and bear arms. For decades, gun control has been a highly controversial issue and a solution to the issue seems far from being a sure thing.
Einleitung
The Second Amendment always seems to be the first argument for people that are against gun legislation. For them it seems to be unthinkable to change the Constitution, which was written by the fathers of the nation. Yet it is not only individuals but also two big influential lobby groups in the U.S. that don't see any reason to legislate guns: the National Rifle Association (NRA) and the Gun Owners of America. These lobbies have a lot of power and control, which makes it hard to change things in the Senate.
Another popular argument for the right to bear arms is people's safety. One feels safer if he or she has a gun because they know that they can defend themselves if becomes necessary. How should you defend yourself against criminals if you don't have a gun on you? Furthermore, gun control would create a black market which can't be regulated.
Pro gun activists argue that they help to prevent crime and by that support the police in their everyday job. Another mantra of pro activists is the statement: "guns don't kill people, people do." With this statement they argue that it is much rather about gun responsibility than about the actual owning of a gun which is problematic.
Hauptteil
Argumente der Befürworter
For gun control supporters these arguments seem bogus. The supporters of gun control point at the high number of casusualties caused by firearms. There are more people killed in gun accidents a year than in any other country of the world. Without the availability of guns a lot of arguments would not escalate to the point where someone is injured or killed by a gun.
Almost anyone can buy a gun in the United States. Background checks of people buying guns are not sufficient enough for gun control supporters.
Gun control supporters don't understand the argument that guns can make their owners feel safer. They are convinced that the opposite is true: people feel insecure when they know that a lot of guns are around and anybody in the streets might pull a gun out of nowhere. The goal for them is the ban of guns, which would create a feeling of security in the United States.
Being careful with guns is not enough. Several tragedies are a result of the fact that guns were available in a case of domestic quarrels. Unintentional shootings are the result of the fact that guns just happened to be around and available.
Argumente der Gegner

There certainly is no easy solution for this issue in the USA. Great Britain passed a total ban on handguns after the Dunblane school massacre in 1996, showing that such a ban can happen. However, the situation in the United States is different. Presidents were shot, shooting sprees took place in schools, people get shot during traffic controls and nothing seems to change. The NRA is a big lobby in the U.S. and seems to be unwilling to change its view on guns. In order to cut into the high number of casualties from incidents with guns, a ban or legislation might just be the only solution. If more people won't start rethinking, the issue cannot be solved in the near future.
Schluss
#gunlaw
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