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Aufgabe 1

Aufgaben
Download als Dokument:PDF
1.
Outline the information on the author and her family (Material 1).
2.
Analyze the tweet (Material 2) and explain to what extent it illustrates ideas from the article (Material 1). Give evidence from the tweet and the article.
3.
Choose one of the following three tasks:
3.1
Explain Indian Prime Minister Modi's "appeal to parents to post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys" (Material 1) and comment on the potential of selfies as a means to change society for the better. Refer to the article and your knowledge about the issue.
3.2
Compare Rudri Bhatt Patel's opportunities as a second-generation immigrant to those of a character from literature or film whose parents also moved to another country. Assess the use they made of their opportunities.
3.3
Using the author's reflections on selfies as a starting point, write an article for a youth magazine, in which you assess the impact posted selfies have on young people's self-esteem.
#immigration#article
Material 1
Excerpt from the article
Rudri Bhatt Patel - What a selfie taught me
$\;$
[…] My 9-year-old daughter pauses in the middle of our walk together and asks for my iPhone. Then she requests I take a selfie with her.
I start to dismiss her question and turn it into a teaching lesson, as I usually do, encouraging her to pay attention to her surroundings while pointing the iPhone towards the cerulean[1] sky, blazing sunset or a pink
5
bougainvillea[2]. But before I finish my sentence, she places the phone in front of our faces and snaps the picture, her full smile and my cautious half-grin spreading across the screen. […]
The selfie movement is controversial and I will admit: it makes me uncomfortable. […] But a few months ago my Facebook feed broadcast Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi’s appeal to parents to post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys and to elevate the relevance of
10
women in a culture which tends to discount the value of a female. This call to action is an important one for Indian women, daughters and mothers across the world who suffer a multitude of injustices […].
Before Modi’s proclamation, I never contemplated the power of a random selfie in my parenting and cultural experience. Afterwards, I reflected on a singular belief: geography is destiny and it impacts my experiences as a daughter and as a mother. My father, with $7 (Dh26)[3] in his pocket, made the choice to migrate to the
15
United States almost 50 years ago from a small village in India. Two years later my mother joined him. On a September morning in 1973, I was born in a hospital in Texas. My birthplace automatically guaranteed opportunities I most likely wouldn’t have had if I’d been born in a village in India.
As my parents tried to assimilate into the American culture, they emphasised the importance of education and pursuit of confidence-building activities, imploring me to interact with the world and engage with
20
people inside and outside of my culture. I tried out for the tennis team, took piano lessons and hung out at the mall with my friends — all very American experiences. As a Texas teen, I didn’t grasp my immigrant parents’ shaky leap into the melting pot. As a teen and woman, my identity as a girl never resonated as an obstacle.
After college, I attended law school; my parents never squashed my pursuit of a career deemed as
25
something traditionally for males, or not appropriate for a woman of Indian descent. The idea of limitations because of my sex and culture rarely entered our discussions.
The same pulse will thrum[4] in my daughter’s childhood and foray[5] into adulthood. She is born to second-generation Indian parents in the US whose upbringing is entirely American. So it is unlikely she will feel the stigma young girls face in India. When I re-evaluated my daughter’s need to take a selfie under this lens, my
30
opinion of her act altered from thinking it was self-indulgent to realising it was empowering. While Modi requested parents to take selfies with their children to make a political statement, my daughter took the initiative to take a snapshot of both of us without giving it any thought, because this is simply part of her cultural context. […]
As for the other girl with a different geography, her parents may not own a smartphone or perhaps she stays
35
at home to take care of her younger siblings and as a result isn’t allowed an education. Her upbringing is shaded by the need to care for the communal, whereas my daughter’s experience is more about furthering her individual ambitions.
So the next time my daughter asks me to be in the picture with her, I will participate with a newfound enthusiasm. […]
Source: Patel, Rudri Bhatt. “What a selfie taught me”. The Washington Post. October 28, 2015. Accessed September 19, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/parenting/wp/2015/10/28/what-a-selfie-taught- me-about-culture-freedom-and-confidence/.

Annotations
[1] cerulean: turquoise, sky blue
[2] bougainvillea: tropical plant that usually has red or purple flowers
[3] Dh: short for: Dirham; currency in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
[4] to thrum: to sound with a monotonous hum
[5] to foray: here: to continue
Material 2
Aufgabe 1
Source: Greenaway, Naomi. "'They are a blessing' […]". Daily Mail. 18 June 2015. Accessed June 28, 2015.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3144753/Indian-men-tweet-selfies-daughters-campaign-improve-women-s-welfare-India.html
Aufgabe 1
Source: Greenaway, Naomi. "'They are a blessing' […]". Daily Mail. 18 June 2015. Accessed June 28, 2015.
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-3144753/Indian-men-tweet-selfies-daughters-campaign-improve-women-s-welfare-India.html
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$\blacktriangleright$  1. Outline information on author and her family
  • author female
  • has a 9-year-old daughter
  • second-generation immigrant to the US
  • father migrated to the US with $ \$ $7 in 1965, mother joined him two years later
  • author was born in Texas $\rightarrow$ birthplace automatically guaranteed opportunities she wouldn't have had in India
  • her parents emphasized importance of education and pursuit of confidence-building activities, entirely American upbringing
  • author has tried out tennis, piano lessons, hung out at the mall with friends
  • her being female was never an issue or obstacle
  • attended law school
  • daughter has a different cultural context than her (becomes apparent with the reference of the selfie)
  • is thankful that her daughter can pursue her own ambitions instead of having to care for younger siblings or not owning a smartphone at all
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Analyze tweet, explain to what extent it illustrates ideas from article
Tweet:
  • tweet shows Indian father with his toddler daughter
  • making funny faces
  • father is thankful for his dauther who brings him a lot of joy
  • is happy when his daughter is happy
  • #selfiewithdaughter stands beneath
  • father is proud of his daughter and wants the world to see it
Ideas in article:
  • parents should post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys (l. 8-9)
  • selfies are supposed to elevate the relevance of women in a culture which tends to discount the value of a female (l. 9-10)
  • geography is destiny and impacts experiences as daughter and mother (l.13-14)
  • Western culture: selfies transform from having a self-indulgent implication to being empowering, as part of the cultural context (l. 30-33)
  • Indian culture: selfie as political statement (l. 31)
Extent to which tweet illustrates ideas in article:
  • tweet shows that father is joyful because of his daughter $\rightarrow$ fights inequality
  • daughter is relevant to father and wants the world to see it $\rightarrow$ elevates the importance of women
  • not possible to assess what possibilities the girl in the tweet has
  • not possible to assess whether father used the tweet as political statement or just because he loves his daughter
  • selfies are part of every cultural context where smartphones exist (not just Western hemisphere)
$\blacktriangleright$  3.1 Explain statement and comment on potential of selfies to change society
Statement:
  • "appeal to parents to post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys"
  • selfies are supposed to eliminate inequality between girls and boys in India
  • girls or women are not as valuable as boys or men
  • aims to tackle the gender ratio gap in India caused by female foeticide and to improve female education
  • to raise awareness for improved women's welfare
  • practice of willingly abort baby girls is still a serious issue in some parts India and is said to have increased since ultrasound technology to determine the sex of babies has become more widely available
  • aims to improve education for girls around India
Comment:
  • trend becomes popular in other countries as well to show love for daughters
  • selfies as a way to communicate a message or feeling that is important to someone
    $\rightarrow$ a selfie with someone's message puts a human being behind the statement and makes it more powerful
    $\rightarrow$ powerful tool to spread a message
    $\rightarrow$ million users are able to see that statement and will follow using the same hashtags,…
  • can raise awareness to the problems people with diseases have (anorexia, diabetes,…)
    $\rightarrow$ more sympathy from outsiders
  • selfies are part of our present cultural context
    $\rightarrow$ have become a normal means to take a picture of memories with friends, alone
    $\rightarrow$ can boost self-esteem of people through likes/comments/shares,…
  • can also spread negative messages and can thus be misused (selfie of nazi,…)
$\blacktriangleright$  3.2 Compare author's opportunities to those of a character from literature or film who is also a second-generation immigrant
Rudri Bhatt Patel's opportunities:
  • her sex has never been an obstacle in her perseverance of her dreams
  • her parents offered her a live of freedom, not interfering with her choices, encouraging her to do whatever she wanted to try
  • has grown up in American surroundings where everything is possible if you only use your opportunities
  • was able to try out whatever she liked during school (sports, friends,…)
  • was able to study at a law school (predominantly male business)
  • no limitations due to her sex
  • wants to transmit same starting situation to her daughter
Jess from the movie "Bend it like Beckham":
  • Jess is infatuated with football
  • because she is a woman, her family doesn't want her to play
  • sometimes plays in the dark with her male friends and her best friend Tony
  • parents discover Jess' hobby and forbid her to play
  • her dad doesn't want Jess to suffer the same way he did when he was kicked out of the cricket club because of him being Indian
  • wins scholarship to university in California due to her special football skills
  • denies herself a relationship to her coach Joe because she doesn't want to start another cultural rebellion
Comparison:
  • Rudri is not limited by her parents whereas Jess is
  • parents of Rudri more modern and assimilated than Jess' parents
  • parents of Rudri encouraged her to try out new things and to believe in herself whereas Jess is supposed to stick to tradition
  • still, both see the opportunities they are given: Rudri goes to law school, Jess accepts the scholarship from an American university
  • both enter a male-dominated area (law/football) and succeed at doing so
  • Rudri is married to an Indian (we don't know if by choice or because of social conventions, though we assume she did it out of love), actively choosing married life with a daughter
  • Jess does not want to get into a relationship with Joe due to her parents, she restricts herself in terms of love
$\blacktriangleright$  3.3 Write an article
Author's reflections on selfies
  • selfie movement makes her uncomfortable
  • has never really thought deeper about the power of selfies
  • selfies belong to daughter's cultural context
Impact of posted selfies on young people's self-esteem
Negative
  • upward social comparison theory: when people view other people's pictures, they might feel like their own lives are not good enough
  • frequent selfie viewing behavior may trigger one's jealousy so as to decrease one's self-esteem and life satisfaction
  • people usually post selfies when they’re happy or having fun $\rightarrow$ someone viewing these pictures might think that think his or her life is not as great as theirs
  • selfie viewing on social media is related to lower self-esteem and lower life satisfaction
  • people who post a lot of pictures of themselves are likely to be looking for validation, and that a lot are disappointed by the results, so they carry on
Positive
  • posting selfies helps build confidence
  • girls often take selfies to increase their self-esteem due to the affirming messages by followers $\rightarrow$ allow them to see themselves in a more positive light
  • self-portraits in a group setting, boosts feelings of belonging as the these photos often showcase communities that the viewers belong to
  • people chronicling their health journey through pictures keeps them motivated
  • capture a treasured memory $\rightarrow$ rush of associated emotions that someone felt at the time
  • reminder of a time when you felt great about yourself
  • encourage to embrace one's beauty
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$\blacktriangleright$  1. Outline information on author and her family
Rudri Bhatt Patel is the author of the article What a selfie taught me. She is a female journalist and lawyer and has a 9-year-old daughter. Her father migrated to the US with $ \$ $7 in 1965 and her mother joined him two years later which makes Patel a second-generation immigrant to the US. She was born in Texas and her birthplace automatically guaranteed opportunities she wouldn't have had in India. That was what her parents had in mind when coming to the US - they emphasized the importance of education and the pursuit of confidence-building activities, all together combined with an entirely American upbringing. This entailed trying out tennis, piano lessons and hanging out at the mall with friends. Furthermore, Rudri Bhatt Patel being female was never an issue or obstacle. As a consequence, Patel attended law school. In contrast to herself, Patel's daughter has a different cultural context which becomes evident with the reference of the selfie. The author is also thankful that her daughter can pursue her own ambitions instead of having to care for younger siblings or not owning a smartphone at all and thus compares herself and her situation of upbringing with her daughter's.
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Analyze tweet, explain to what extent it illustrates ideas from article
Tweet:
  • tweet shows Indian father with his toddler daughter
  • making funny faces
  • father is thankful for his dauther who brings him a lot of joy
  • is happy when his daughter is happy
  • #selfiewithdaughter stands beneath
  • father is proud of his daughter and wants the world to see it
Ideas in article:
  • parents should post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys (l. 8-9)
  • selfies are supposed to elevate the relevance of women in a culture which tends to discount the value of a female (l. 9-10)
  • geography is destiny and impacts experiences as daughter and mother (l.13-14)
  • Western culture: selfies transform from having a self-indulgent implication to being empowering, as part of the cultural context (l. 30-33)
  • Indian culture: selfie as political statement (l. 31)
Extent to which tweet illustrates ideas in article:
  • tweet shows that father is joyful because of his daughter $\rightarrow$ fights inequality
  • daughter is relevant to father and wants the world to see it $\rightarrow$ elevates the importance of women
  • not possible to assess what possibilities the girl in the tweet has
  • not possible to assess whether father used the tweet as political statement or just because he loves his daughter
  • selfies are part of every cultural context where smartphones exist (not just Western hemisphere)
$\blacktriangleright$  3.1 Explain statement and comment on potential of selfies to change society
Statement:
  • "appeal to parents to post selfies with their daughters to combat the inequality between Indian girls and boys"
  • selfies are supposed to eliminate inequality between girls and boys in India
  • girls or women are not as valuable as boys or men
  • aims to tackle the gender ratio gap in India caused by female foeticide and to improve female education
  • to raise awareness for improved women's welfare
  • practice of willingly abort baby girls is still a serious issue in some parts India and is said to have increased since ultrasound technology to determine the sex of babies has become more widely available
  • aims to improve education for girls around India
Comment:
  • trend becomes popular in other countries as well to show love for daughters
  • selfies as a way to communicate a message or feeling that is important to someone
    $\rightarrow$ a selfie with someone's message puts a human being behind the statement and makes it more powerful
    $\rightarrow$ powerful tool to spread a message
    $\rightarrow$ million users are able to see that statement and will follow using the same hashtags,…
  • can raise awareness to the problems people with diseases have (anorexia, diabetes,…)
    $\rightarrow$ more sympathy from outsiders
  • selfies are part of our present cultural context
    $\rightarrow$ have become a normal means to take a picture of memories with friends, alone
    $\rightarrow$ can boost self-esteem of people through likes/comments/shares,…
  • can also spread negative messages and can thus be misused (selfie of nazi,…)
$\blacktriangleright$  3.2 Compare author's opportunities to those of a character from literature or film who is also a second-generation immigrant
Rudri Bhatt Patel's opportunities:
  • her sex has never been an obstacle in her perseverance of her dreams
  • her parents offered her a live of freedom, not interfering with her choices, encouraging her to do whatever she wanted to try
  • has grown up in American surroundings where everything is possible if you only use your opportunities
  • was able to try out whatever she liked during school (sports, friends,…)
  • was able to study at a law school (predominantly male business)
  • no limitations due to her sex
  • wants to transmit same starting situation to her daughter
Jess from the movie "Bend it like Beckham":
  • Jess is infatuated with football
  • because she is a woman, her family doesn't want her to play
  • sometimes plays in the dark with her male friends and her best friend Tony
  • parents discover Jess' hobby and forbid her to play
  • her dad doesn't want Jess to suffer the same way he did when he was kicked out of the cricket club because of him being Indian
  • wins scholarship to university in California due to her special football skills
  • denies herself a relationship to her coach Joe because she doesn't want to start another cultural rebellion
Comparison:
  • Rudri is not limited by her parents whereas Jess is
  • parents of Rudri more modern and assimilated than Jess' parents
  • parents of Rudri encouraged her to try out new things and to believe in herself whereas Jess is supposed to stick to tradition
  • still, both see the opportunities they are given: Rudri goes to law school, Jess accepts the scholarship from an American university
  • both enter a male-dominated area (law/football) and succeed at doing so
  • Rudri is married to an Indian (we don't know if by choice or because of social conventions, though we assume she did it out of love), actively choosing married life with a daughter
  • Jess does not want to get into a relationship with Joe due to her parents, she restricts herself in terms of love
$\blacktriangleright$  3.3 Write an article
Author's reflections on selfies
  • selfie movement makes her uncomfortable
  • has never really thought deeper about the power of selfies
  • selfies belong to daughter's cultural context
Impact of posted selfies on young people's self-esteem
Negative
  • upward social comparison theory: when people view other people's pictures, they might feel like their own lives are not good enough
  • frequent selfie viewing behavior may trigger one's jealousy so as to decrease one's self-esteem and life satisfaction
  • people usually post selfies when they’re happy or having fun $\rightarrow$ someone viewing these pictures might think that think his or her life is not as great as theirs
  • selfie viewing on social media is related to lower self-esteem and lower life satisfaction
  • people who post a lot of pictures of themselves are likely to be looking for validation, and that a lot are disappointed by the results, so they carry on
Positive
  • posting selfies helps build confidence
  • girls often take selfies to increase their self-esteem due to the affirming messages by followers $\rightarrow$ allow them to see themselves in a more positive light
  • self-portraits in a group setting, boosts feelings of belonging as the these photos often showcase communities that the viewers belong to
  • people chronicling their health journey through pictures keeps them motivated
  • capture a treasured memory $\rightarrow$ rush of associated emotions that someone felt at the time
  • reminder of a time when you felt great about yourself
  • encourage to embrace one's beauty
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