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Task I

Aufgaben
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Reading Comprehension

$\;$
Material
Anne-Sophie Brändlin: Taking control of Everest climbers' environmental impact
(A) More than 3,000 people have stood atop Mount Everest since the world's highest peak was first climbed by Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay 60 years ago. Each year, hundreds of climbers ascend the 8,848-meter high mountain. But not all of them are professional mountaineers. Climbing Mount Everest has become part of the adventure industry. In 2013, the first Saudi woman, set of twins, and female amputee
5
made the summit. Other mountain records include the first wedding, the first video call, and the first Harlem Shake. But all of these firsts come with a downside: the booming alpine tourism industry is having a big environmental impact.
(B) Nepal has eight of the 14 highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest. Nepalese authorities say that the number of visitors to Sagarmatha National Park, where Everest lies, has roughly tripled in the
10
past 20 years. With the increasing number of tourists comes a growing amount of rubbish left behind on mountains: food wrappers, climbing gear, oxygen cylinders, and even the bodies of climbers who died along the way. The frigid temperatures mean trash does not biodegrade.
(C) Over the past six decades, an estimated 50 tons of trash has been left on Mount Everest, giving it the nickname "the world's highest garbage dump." Mountaineering associations have complained about the
15
growing number of inexperienced climbers leaving their garbage behind in an attempt to save the energy they need to reach the summit or return to base camp alive. Famous climbers such as Reinhold Messner have said Mount Everest has been trivialized, calling for Nepal to close off access to the mountain for a handful of years to allow it to recover.
(D) Now Nepal's tourism ministry has acted, deciding that from this April forward, every climber going
20
beyond the base camp will be required to bring back at least eight kilograms (17.6 pounds) of their personal waste and hand it over to officials stationed there. That's the amount the government estimates an exhausted climber discards along the way. The aim is to make sure that no new trash will be left on Everest.
(E) Pasang Sherpa, general secretary of the Nepal National Guide Association, told DW he thinks this new garbage rule is a good idea, but what's lacking are clear instructions. "It's not yet clear how many days after
25
starting the ascent of Mount Everest we have to bring back the trash. And they also didn't say how much has been brought down from which camp. There are many different camps on different heights and we have to know from which camp we have to bring back how much," he said.
(F) If climbers don't bring back their garbage, the tourism ministry will take legal action against them, Nepalese officials said. But what exactly these legal actions entail remains unclear as well. To this point,
30
Everest climbers have had to pay a deposit of $4,000 (2,900 euros) that was refunded after proving that they brought back everything they took up the mountain.
(G) According to Gordon Janow, Director of Programs of Alpine Ascents, a United States-based mountaineering school, Mount Everest can push even the most experienced climbers to their limit and if someone doesn't pick up all of their trash, it doesn't mean that this mountaineer doesn't care about the
35
environment or is lazy. "If someone is struggling to get down and stay alive it might be hard to think about picking up the trash," he said. "So if someone doesn't come down with eight kilos, will a Nepali attorney find the person in their home country and will a judge say they should've have taken the trash down even though it might have caused them an injury?"
(H) The new rules were not implemented to limit tourism. The Nepalese tourism ministry in fact encourages
40
the increasing number of climbers and recently cut its fees in half for individual climbers of Mount Everest and other Nepalese peaks to attract yet more tourists. There are also plans to fix additional ropes and possibly ladders to ease congestion at bottleneck areas like the Hillary Step. After all, Everest's tourism industry earns Nepal $3.3 million a year in climbing fees. On top of that, it supports tens of thousands of trekking guides and hotel owners who depend on climbers and tourists for their livelihoods. It will take a
45
combined effort from mountaineers, the local Sherpa people and Nepalese authorities to liberate Mount Everest from its piles of rubbish.
Adaptiert Aus: Anne-Sophie Brändlin: Taking control of Everest climbers' environmental impact, http://www.dw.com/en/taking-control-of-everest-climbers-environmental-impact/a-17502443, 19.03.2014
#gaptext#reading#comprehension#article

Task I: Mixed Reading Tasks

1.
Gapped Summary
Fill the gaps in the summary with appropriate words or expressions (one word per line) from the corresponding sections of the text B and D to G. Do not make any changes or adjustments. Please also provide the number of the line in which you have found the word/expression.
In Nepa, a growing number of mountaineers has caused masses of rubbish will not (l. $\quad$) due to the extremely cold climate at this altitude. In the case of Mount Everest, Nepal's ministry of tourism has ordered visitors to carry down the portion of waste which each of them supposedly (l. $\quad$) while climbing and descending the mountain. Despite the approval of the Nepal National Guide Association, it has been pointed out that this new regulation is (l. $\quad$) clarity. Until now, mountaineers have had to make a payment which was (l. $\quad$) when they carried back their waste. In the future, those who do not cooperate will have to face (l. $\quad$) , but the exact procedure has not been established yet.
In the death zone Mount everest even the (l. $\quad$) adventurers have to fight to survive and may therefore be unable to think about collecting waste. However, that does not mean that they are not interested in protecting the environment.
2.
Short-Answer Questions and Sentence Completion
Answer the following questions or complete the sentences with words/expressions from paragraphs A, C and H.
2.1
In recent years Mount Everest has seen a lot of unusual superlatives - however this trend is not only positive because of its .
2.2
Which temporary measure has been demanded by well-known mountaineers to protect Mount Everest?
2.3
The local authorities did not intend when they set up the new regulations regarding Mount Evererst.
2.4
Why do local authorities plan to attach new climbing gear to certain passages?
2.5
Apart from the money they pay the country directly, tourists also contribute to the locals'
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Reading Comprehension

$\blacktriangleright$  Task I: Mixed Reading Tasks
1.
In Nepa, a growing number of mountaineers has caused masses of rubbish will not biodegrade (l. 12) due to the extremely cold climate at this altitude. In the case of Mount Everest, Nepal's ministry of tourism has ordered visitors to carry down the portion of waste which each of them supposedly discards (l. 22) while climbing and descending the mountain. Despite the approval of the Nepal National Guide Association, it has been pointed out that this new regulation is lacking (l. 24) clarity. Until now, mountaineers have had to make a payment which was refunded (l. 30) when they carried back their waste. In the future, those who do not cooperate will have to face legal action (l. 29), but the exact procedure has not been established yet.
In the death zone Mount everest even the most experienced (l. 33) adventurers have to fight to survive and may therefore be unable to think about collecting waste. However, that does not mean that they are not interested in protecting the environment.
2.
2.1
In recent years Mount Everest has seen a lot of unusual superlatives - however this trend is not only positive because of its environmental impact.
2.2
Which temporary measure has been demanded by well-known mountaineers to protect Mount Everest?
to close off access
2.3
The local authorities did not intend to limit tourism when they set up the new regulations regarding Mount Evererst.
2.4
Why do local authorities plan to attach new climbing gear to certain passages?
to ease congestion at bottleneck areas
2.5
Apart from the money they pay the country directly, tourists also contribute to the locals' livelihoods.
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