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Vorschlag C

Aufgaben
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Immigration

Teil A: Sprachmittlung
As a participant in an international youth conference on immigration and multiculturalism you are asked to present German views on integration and parallel societies.
Outline the views on parallel societies in Germany as presented in the article. (Material 3)
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
1.
Summarize the article. (Material 4)
2.
Explain the South African reaction to Ayako Sono’s article, taking into account your knowledge of South Africa during and after apartheid.
3.
Ayako Sono also claimed: "Humans can do many things together: business, research, and sports, to name a few. But when it comes to living, this is one area where we must remain apart."
Comment on this statement, taking into account concepts of multicultural societies (USA and/or GB) dealt with in class.
#racism#mediation
Material 3
$\;$
Parvin Sadigh (et al.): Die guten, bösen Einwanderer (2013)
Mythos 5: Es gibt genug Parallelgesellschaften in deutschen Städten. Kommen mehr Einwanderer, ist der gesellschaftliche Zusammenhalt gefährdet.
Jeder kennt die Straßenzüge in Berlin-Neukölln, Hamburg-Wilhelmsburg oder Duisburg-Marxloh: Straßen, in denen alle Läden türkisch sind und Frauen mit Kopftuch herumlaufen. Diese Bilder werden oft mit der Vorstellung verknüpft, hinter den Wohnungs- und Moscheetüren habe sich eine autonome fremde Gesellschaft gebildet, die ihren eigenen Regeln folgt.
5
Der Historiker Jochen Oltmer findet jedoch schon das Wort falsch. Parallelgesellschaft sei ein Kampfbegriff, sagt er. Meist seien damit nur türkische-muslimische Communitys gemeint. Die Elite, die in Dahlem oder Blankenese unter sich bleibt und deren Mitglieder sich gegenseitig Vorteile verschaffen, wird nicht so bezeichnet. Freiwillig ist die Konzentration der ungebildeten, armen Einwanderer in bestimmten Stadtteilen ohnehin nur bedingt. Sie brauchen bezahlbare Wohnungen. Und natürlich leben nicht nur Türken und
10
Muslime in Neukölln. Eigene Schiedsgerichte oder Schulen gibt es sehr selten. Die meisten türkischstämmigen Einwanderer nutzen die deutschen Institutionen und arbeiten in deutschen Firmen.
Tatsächlich aber nutzen Einwanderer soziale oder ethnische Netzwerke, denn es nützt ihnen. Der Politikwissenschaftler Thomas Meyer spricht von einer „hilfreichen Schleusenfunktion“. Bereits hier lebende Verwandte oder Freunde erklären, zu welcher Behörde die neu Eingewanderten gehen müssen, wie man
15
eine Wohnung findet. Sie sprechen die gleiche Sprache und sorgen für ein wenig Geborgenheit in der Fremde. Oltmer sagt, diese Netzwerke seien charakteristisch für Migration, sogar verantwortlich für ihr Ausmaß. Man denke an Kolonien in New York wie Little Italy, Little Germany oder China Town.
Nur wenn das Netz sehr groß ist, die Einwanderer einheitlich aus einer ungebildeten armen Schicht kommen und sie sich von der Mehrheitsgesellschaft diskriminiert fühlen, kann das für sie zur Falle werden, sagt
20
Meyer. Die neuen Migranten lernen nicht Deutsch, können ihren Kindern in der Schule nicht helfen, sie konsumieren nur türkischsprachige Medien. Eine Spirale entsteht, die die Einwanderer am Aufstieg und an der Integration in die Mehrheitsgesellschaft hindert. Wer arbeitslos ist, verkehrt nur noch mit Arbeitslosen, der Hilfsarbeiter mit Hilfsarbeitern.
Besteht also die Gefahr, dass sich neue Kolonien bilden? Neue Einwanderer in Deutschland kommen zu 60
25
Prozent aus europäischen Ländern. Polen, Rumänen und Bulgaren nutzen natürlich ihre Netzwerke. Spanische Studenten ziehen in eine WG mit befreundeten Spaniern. Doch diese Netze werden sich nicht zu sogenannten Parallelgesellschaften verfestigen. Die meisten der aktuellen Einwanderer sind gebildet – und „je höher der Bildungsgrad, desto größer ist die Tendenz, dass sich Kolonien wieder auflösen“, sagt Oltmer. Auch die Gefahr, dass sich sogenannte Parallelgesellschaften von ungebildeten Bulgaren und Rumänen
30
bilden, sei nicht sehr groß. Viele der Einwanderer bleiben nicht lange in Deutschland, sagt Oltmer, und sie sind zu wenige, um eigene Kolonien zu bilden.
Hinweis:
In ZEIT ONLINE wurden insgesamt 5 Thesen zur Einwanderung auf ihren Wahrheitsgehalt überprüft.
Der vorliegende Auszug beschäftigt sich mit Mythos 5.
Parvin Sadigh (et al.): Die guten, bösen Einwanderer, in: ZEIT ONLINE, 20.06.2013.
http://www.zeit.de/wirtschaft/2013-06/einwanderung-migration-mythen-fakten/seite-5 (abgerufen am 13.04.2016).
Material 4
$\;$
Bad Timing (2015)
As Japan considers welcoming more foreigners to its shores, a bestselling author calls for their segregation
The Sankei Shimbun, a Japanese daily[1], has a reputation for illiberal commentary. Last week it outdid itself by running a column that lauded[2] the segregation of races in apartheid-era South Africa – and urged Japan to do the same. Ayako Sono, a conservative columnist, said that if her country had to lower its drawbridge to immigrants, then they should be made to live apart. “It is next to impossible to attain an understanding of
5
foreigners by living alongside them”, she wrote.
Ms Sono’s views got an airing as the government of Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, appears set to promote immigration in all but name. They caused a stir in South Africa, whose ambassador to Japan called them “scandalous”. In Japan, however, the reaction has been oddly muted. The media scarcely picked up on the ambassador’s letter. The Sankei initially greeted criticism with bemusement. It then issued a pro-forma reply
10
defending its right to run different opinions.
Japan’s government is considering allowing 200,000 foreigners a year to come to Japan to help to solve a deepening demographic crisis and shortage of workers. The population fell by nearly a quarter of a million in 2013. An advisory body to Mr Abe says that immigrants could help stabilise the population at around 100m[3], from a current 127m. Not since the ancestors of Japan’s current inhabitants arrived in the islands
15
from Korea two millennia ago has there been an example of immigration on the scale of that proposed. In this largely homogeneous country, just 2% of the population is of foreign origin – and that includes large numbers of residents with roots in Korea, a former Japanese colony, whose families have lived in Japan for generations.
[…] A survey by NHK, Japan’s national broadcaster, shows support for more foreigners is rising. Mark
20
Mullins, a scholar who has followed Ms Sono’s career for years, calls her a “loose cannon”[4] in Team Abe[5].
Mr Abe’s government has sidestepped the Sankei furore, merely pointing out that Ms Sono had quit the education panel before she published her views. Her article was, in any case, talking about low- paid caregivers to look after Japan’s legions[6] of pensioners. Such professionals, typically from Indonesia and
25
the Philippines, have been allowed in for years under a back-door scheme that labels them “trainees”, a situation that is unlikely to change. Mr Abe wants to encourage the limited migration of skilled workers.
If the Sankei story has any lasting impact, it might be to Japan’s reputation abroad. Ms Sono’s column was entitled “Let them in – but keep them at a distance”. It ran on February 11th, National Foundation Day, by tradition a day for Japanese to express patriotism. The South African ambassador pointed out that February 11th was also the anniversary of Nelson Mandela’s release from prison, 25 years ago.
Bad timing, in: The Economist, 20.02.2015. http://www.economist.com/news/asia/21644496-japan-considers-welcoming-more-foreign-workers-its-shores-bestselling- author-calls-their (abgerufen am 13.04.2016).
Hinweis: Der Verfasser wurde in der Textvorlage nicht genannt.

Annotations
[1] daily: daily newspaper
[2] to laude: to praise
[3] 100m: 100 million
[4] a loose cannon: Ausdruck für jemanden, der vorschnell agiert
[5] Ms Sono recently sat on a government panel on education reform in Abe’s government. Her views have not been widely supported by the public.
[6] legions: here: many
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Immigration

Teil A Sprachmittlung
$\blacktriangleright$  Outline the views on parallel societies in Germany
  • people believe that Turkish immigrants have established a parallel society behind apartment doors and mosques that follows its own rules
  • actually, the term "parallel society" is a battle cry $\rightarrow$ Turkish-Muslim communities are meant
  • it is just natural, that the illiterate, poor immigrants do not have the money to live in richer areas like Blankenese but concentrate in poorer areas like Neukölln
  • however, they use German institutions and work in German companies
  • use social and ethnic networks to find apartments or to get help with dealing with authorities
  • these networks are normal with regard to migration, just consider Little Italy in NYC
  • if the network is rather huge and the immigrants stem from a poorer, working class it is more likely that this community would feel discriminated by the majority society
  • parallel societies are not very likely to being established because immigrants nowadays are literate and the higher the education level, the bigger the tendency that such parallel societies are going to dissolve
  • also, not many immigrants actually stay in Germany and hence, societies cannot be established due to the low number of immigrants
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
$\blacktriangleright$  Summarize article
  • newspaper featured a column that praised the segregation of races in apartheid South-Africa and urged Japan to do so as well
  • said that if Japan wanted to accept more immigrants, they should be made to live apart
  • South African embassador called this scandalous but Japanese media didn't react on that
  • newspaper only published a pro-forma reply that said that it was their right to broadcast different opinions
  • Japan allows 200,000 foreigners a year in order to solve the worsening demographic crisis and shortage of workers
  • immigrants can help stabilize the population at around 100 million
  • Japan as a rather homogenous country, only 2% of the population is of foreign origin
  • support for more foreigners is rising
  • government defended newspaper article, saying that the article was just talking about low-paid caregivers to look after elderly people
  • government wants to encourage the limited migration of skilled workers
  • article might have impact on Japanese reputation abroad
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Explain South African reaction to article
  • newspaper article praised the segregation of races in apartheid-era South Africa
  • South African ambassador to Japan called this scandalous
  • article was released on the anniversary of Nelson Mandela's release from prison 25 years ago
  • apartheid was introduced in 1948
  • during apartheid, nonwhite South Africans were forced to live in separate areas from whites and use separate public facilities, and contact between the two groups was to be limited
  • tried to stop all inter-marriage and social integration between racial groups
  • apartheid was a social system which severely disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin colour of the rulers
  • apartheid made segregation part of the law
  • apartheid was introduced in a period when other countries were moving away from racist policies
  • main reasons why apartheid came into being lie in ideas of racial superiority and fear
  • people had to be registered according to their racial group
  • resistance to apartheid came from all circles, criticism from other countries
  • South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights
  • leader of both peaceful protests and armed resistance against the white minority’s oppressive regime in a racially divided South Africa
  • after attaining freedom, Mandela led the negotiations with the governing National Party for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government
  • Mandela awarded with Nobel Peace Prize in 1993
  • in 1994, more than 22 million South Africans turned out to cast ballots in the country’s first multiracial parliamentary elections in history
  • majority chose the ANC to lead the country and Mandela became the first black president of South Africa
  • article basically mocks Mandela's work and his fight against racism and what he endured in prison (punishment, rationing of food, humiliation)
$\blacktriangleright$  3. Comment on statement
Possible information for Introduction:
  • example of multicultural societies (UK/USA)
  • difference between living with another race and working or doing research together? (there is none)
Definition of multiculturalism:
  • simply respect for other cultures and letting others do as they please $\rightarrow$ tolerance
  • cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and communicate with each another without having to give up their particular identities
  • the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society, as a state or nation
Main Part - Races should be living apart from each other
Pro arguments:
  • Native American reservations: loss of cultural heritage
    $\rightarrow$ if Native Americans would leave their reservations in order to live together with other cultures it would mean a serious loss of their ancestry
    $\rightarrow$ reservations as cultural centers
    $\rightarrow$ Native Americans unwilling to share traditions with outsiders due to their sacredness
Con arguments:
  • more tolerant and open-minded society: creates better society
    $\rightarrow$ enables different beliefs and value systems to co-exist meaning that positive aspects of one culture may be adopted by others
  • globalised world: no place for isolation and discrimination
    $\rightarrow$ to get ahead in life, individuals have to recognise both the similarities and differences that exist between various peoples
    $\rightarrow$ makes a society more open to change, as its social make-up is often in flux, as individuals move between societies
  • community flair: increases the vitality of a community
    $\rightarrow$ ethnic restaurants or grocery stores add flavour and colour to communities, attracting new residents and tourists
    $\rightarrow$ communities benefit from new cultural celebrations and more diverse cultural foods, music and arts at local festivals
    $\rightarrow$ schools develop cross-cultural syllabus, broadening the children's understanding of the world and their neighbours
Possible Conclusion:
  • people who bemoan the influence of cultures are exactly those who will go out and eat Chinese food, use Japanese technology, drive German cars and embrace all manner of foreign concepts and ideas without even realising it
  • doing business, research and sports are no different from living with humans of different races
  • salad bowl: different American cultures are brought together — like salad ingredients — but do not form together into a single homogeneous culture
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Immigration

Teil A Sprachmittlung
$\blacktriangleright$  Outline the views on parallel societies in Germany
People in Germany believe that Turkish immigrants have established a parallel society behind apartment doors and mosques that follows its own rules. The term "parallel society" however is a battle cry in itself. Actually, Turkish-Muslim communities are meant with that term which is simply wrong. In fact, they they use German institutions and work in German companies. However, it is just natural, that the often illiterate and poor immigrants do not have the money to live in richer areas like Blankenese but rather concentrate in poorer areas such as Neukölln. They use social and ethnic networks to find apartments or to get help with dealing with authorities. These networks are normal with regard to migration, just consider Little Italy in New York City. If the network is rather huge and the immigrants stem from a poorer, working class, it is more likely that this community would feel discriminated by the major society. Yet, parallel societies are not very likely to being established because immigrants nowadays are literate and the higher the education level, the bigger the tendency that such parallel societies are going to dissolve. Also, not many immigrants actually stay in Germany and hence, societies cannot be established due to the low number of immigrants.
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
$\blacktriangleright$  1. Summarize article
The article "Bad Timing" that was published in The Economist deals with the rather unprogressive opinion of an author, claiming that if the Japanese government thinks about welcoming more foreigners into its country, it should also think about the segregation of the different cultures.
A Japanese newspaper featured a column that praised the segregation of races in apartheid South Africa and urged Japan to do so as well. It said that if Japan wanted to accept more immigrants, they should be made to live apart. The South African embassador called this scandalous but the Japanese media didn't react to that at all. Upon that, the newspaper only published a pro-forma reply that said that it was their right to broadcast different opinions. Japan allows 200,000 foreigners a year in order to solve the worsening demographic crisis and shortage of workers. Immigrants could help stabilize the population at around 100 million people. Japan is a rather homogenous country, only 2% of the population is of foreign origin. The support for more foreigners is rising though. However, the government defended the newspaper article, saying that it was just talking about low-paid caregivers to look after elderly people. In fact, the government wants to encourage the limited migration of skilled workers. The article and the opinion it broadcasts might have a rather mentionable impact on the Japanese reputation abroad.
Vorschlag C $\blacktriangleright$  2. Explain South African reaction to article
The Japanese newspaper article praised the segregation of races in apartheid-era South Africa. The South African embassador called this scandalous - especially since the article was released on the anniversary of Nelson Mandela's release from prison 25 years ago.
Apartheid was introduced in South Africa in 1948 and during that period, nonwhite South Africans were forced to live in separate areas from whites and use separate public facilities, and contact between the two groups was to be limited - it made segregation a part of the law. Another purpose of that was to stop all inter-marriage and social integration between racial groups. Apartheid was in fact a social system which severly disadvantaged the majority of the population, simply because they did not share the skin color of the rulers. The main reasons why apartheid came into being lie in the ideas of racial superiority and fear from something different than oneself.
It was actually rather scandalous to introduce such a regime when many other countries were moving away from racist policies and resistance against apartheid came from all circles and was criticized by many other countries. The South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights. He was a leader of both peaceful protests and armed resistance against the white minority's oppressive regime in a racially divided South Africa. After attaining freedom, Mandela led the negotiations with the governing National Party for an end to apartheid and the establishment of a multiracial government. Due to that, Mandela was awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. In 1994, more than 22 million South Africans turned out to cast balloots in the country's first multiracial parliamentary elections in history. The majority chose the ANC to lead the country and Mandela became the first black president of South Africa. The article basically mocks Mandela's work and his fight against racism and what he endured in prison - including punishment, the rationing of food and various humiliations.
Vorschlag C $\blacktriangleright$  3. Comment on statement
In the Japanese newspaper article, the author Ayako Sono claims that humans can do many things together: business, research, and sports, to name a few. However, the author postulates that people of different cultural heritage or nationality cannot live together. From this quotation, one can clearly tell that the author is conservative in her mindset. She postulates that there is a difference between living with another race and working or doing research together, when in fact there is no logical difference between those aspects of live. Also, many countries prove her wrong - the USA is the bet example of working multicultural societies.
It all comes down to simple respect for other cultures and letting others do as they please and tolerating that when having a discourse about multiculturalism. It is basically a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and communicate with each other without having to give up their particular identities. It is also the preservation of different cultures or cultural identities within a unified society, as a state or nation.
Of course, one could say that a certain loss of cultural heritage might occur when different races live together. If Native Americans would leave their reservations in order to live together with other cultures it would mean a serious loss of their ancestry for instance. Their reservations are cultural centers and in addition, Native Americans are rather unwilling to share traditions with outsiders due to their sacredness.
However, I think that multiculturalism promotes a more tolerant and open-minded society. It enables different beliefs and value systems to co-exist - meaning that positive aspects of one culture may be adopted by others. In a globalized world, there is simply no place for isolation and discrimination. To get ahead in life, individuals have to recognize both the similarities and differences that exist between various peoples. It also makes a society more prone to change, as its social make-up is often flux, as individuals move between societies. Furthermore, the community flair that emerges when different ethnic groups live together increases the vitality of a community. Ethnic restaurants or grocery stores add flavour and colour to communities, attracting new residents and tourists. The communities benefit from new cultural celebrations and more diverse cultural foods, music and arts at local festivals. In addition, schools can develop a cross-cultural syllabus, broadening the children's understanding of the world and their neighbours.
I believe that people who bemoan the influence of cultures are exactly those who will go out and eat Chinese food, use Japanese technology, drive German cars and embrace all kinds of foreign concepts and ideas without even realizing it. To come back to Ayako Sono's statement, there really is no difference between living or working with humans of different races. The metaphor of the salad bowl pretty much describes how multiculturalism benefits every culture: different American cultures are brought togehter - like salad ingredients - but do not form into a single homogenous culture.
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