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Vorschlag A

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Slavery

1.
Describe Sarah’s conflict and how she tries to resolve it. (Material 1)
2.
Analyze the conflict and feelings of the narrator, considering the point of view and the stylistic devices used in the text.
3.
As a young adult, you have become active in the anti-slavery movement in modern Britain. Therefore you have been invited to speak at an international human rights conference for university students. Using the bar graph (Material 2) as a starting point, write a speech, in which you plead for the abolition of modern day slavery.
#slavery#speech
Material 1
$\;$
Sue Monk Kidd: The Invention of Wings (excerpt from the novel, 2014)
Charleston/USA, November 26, 1803: At her eleventh birthday party, Sarah Grimké is given the young slave Hetty as a present in front of all the guests. Sarah is shocked and says that she does not want the present. She is sent to her room in disgrace to write letters of apology to her guests.
‘… Mother, please, let me … let me give Hetty back to you.’
Give Hetty back. As if she was mine after all. As if owning people was as natural as breathing. For all my resistance about slavery, I breathed that foul air, too.
‘Your guardianship is legal and binding. Hetty is yours, Sarah, there is nothing to be done about it.’
5
‘… But –’
I heard the commotion of her petticoats as she crossed the rug back to me. She was a woman the winds and tides obeyed, but in that moment, she was gentle with me. Placing a finger under my chin, she tilted my face to hers and smiled. ‘Why must you fight this? I don’t know where you get these alien ideas. This is our way of life, dear one, make your peace with it.’ She kissed the top of my head. ‘I expect all eighteen letters
10
by the morning.’ […]
It seemed traitorous to ask forgiveness for something I didn’t feel sorry for in the least. What I regretted was how pathetic my protest had turned out. I wanted nothing more than to sit here unyielding through the night, for days and weeks if need be, but in the end I gave in and wrote the damnable letters. I knew myself to be an odd girl with my mutinous ideas, ravenous intellect, and funny looks, and half the time I sputtered
15
like a horse straining at its bit[1], qualities in the female sex that were not endearing. I was on my way to being the family pariah, and I feared the ostracism[2]. I feared it most of all.
Over and over I wrote:
Dear Madame,
Thank you for the honor and kindness you bestowed upon me by attending my eleventh birthday tea. I
20
regret that though I have been well-taught by my parents, my behavior on this occasion was exceedingly ill-mannered. I humbly beg your pardon for my rudeness and disrespect.
Your Remorseful Friend,
Sarah Grimké
I climbed the preposterous height to the mattress and had only just settled when a bird outside my window
25
began to trill. First, a stream of pelting whistles, then a soft, melancholic song. I felt alone in the world with my alien ideas.
Sliding from my perch, I stole to the window where I shivered in my white woolen gown, gazing along East Bay, past the dark rooftops toward the harbor. With hurricane season behind us, there were close to a hundred topsails moored out there, shimmering on the water. Plastering my cheek against the frigid pane, I
30
discovered I had a partial view of the slave quarters above the carriage house where I knew Hetty to be spending her last night with her mother. Tomorrow she would take up her duties and sleep outside my door.
It was then I had a sudden epiphany[3]. I lit a candle from the dwindling coals in the fire, opened my door, and stepped into the dark, unheated passageway. Three dark shapes lay on the floor beside the bedroom doors. I’d never really seen the world beyond the nursery at night and it took a moment to realize the
35
shapes were slaves, sleeping close by in case a Grimké rang his bell. […]
I […] turned the knob to Father’s library, and stepped inside. An ornately framed portrait of George Washington was lit with a scrim of moonlight coming through the front window. For almost a year, Father had looked the other way as I’d slipped beneath Mr Washington’s nose to plunder the library. John, Thomas, and Frederick[4] had total reign over his vast trove – books of law, geography, philosophy,
40
theology, history, botany, poetry, and the Greek humanities – while Mary[5] and I were officially forbidden to read a word of it. Mary didn’t seem to care for books, but I…I dreamed of them in my sleep. […]
I wanted to know things, to become someone. Oh, to be a son! I adored Father because he treated me almost as if I were a son, allowing me to slip in and out of his library.
On that night, the coals in the library’s fireplace lay cold and the smell of cigar smoke still pooled in the air.
45
Without effort, I located Father’s South Carolina Justice of the Peace and Public Laws, which he himself had authored, I’d thumbed through it enough to know somewhere in the pages was a copy of a legal manumission[6] document.
Upon finding it, I took paper and quill from Father’s desk and copied it:
I hereby certify that on this day, 26 November 1803, in the city of Charleston, in the state of South Carolina,
50
I set free from slavery, Hetty Grimké[7], and bestow this certificate of manumission upon her.
Sarah Moore Grimké
What could Father do but make Hetty’s freedom as legal and binding as her ownership? I was following a code of law he’d fashioned himself! I left my handiwork atop the backgammon box on his desk.
In the corridor, I heard the tingle of Mother’s bell, summoning Cindie[8], and I broke into a run back upstairs
55
that blew out the flame on my candle.
My room had turned even colder and the little bird had ceased its song. I crept beneath the stackpile of quilts and blankets, but couldn’t sleep for excitement. I imagined the thanksgiving Hetty and Charlotte[9] would heap on me. I imagined Father’s pride when he discovered the document, and Mother’s annoyance. Legal and binding, indeed! Finally, overcome with fatigue and satisfaction, I drifted to sleep.
60
When I woke, the bluish tint of the Delft tiles[10] around the hearth gleamed with light. […] Voices came from the corridor mingled with the clink-clank of trays and pitchers. The sound of slaves in their servitude. The world waking.
I dressed hurriedly, wondering if Hetty was already outside my door. As I opened it, my heart picked up its pace, but Hetty wasn’t there. The manumission document I’d written lay on the floor. It was torn in two.
Sue Monk Kidd: The Invention of Wings, London 2014, S. 19 – 25.

Annotations
[1] “I sputtered like a horse straining at its bit”: I was impulsive and unruly
[2] ostracism: exclusion from society or social classes or groups
[3] epiphany: a sudden discovery or realization
[4] John, Thomas, Frederick: Sarah’s brothers
[5] Mary: Sarah’s sister
[6] manumission: legal document freeing someone from slavery
[7] Slaves were sometimes given the family name of their owners
[8] Cindie: a slave
[9] Charlotte: Hetty’s mother, a slave
[10] Delft tiles: pottery tiles from the Netherlands
Material 2
Vorschlag A
Abb. 1: Adults // Children
Vorschlag A
Abb. 1: Adults // Children
https://www.theguardian.com/politics/reality-check/2013/nov/22/how-prevalent-slavery-uk-today (abgerufen am 20.04.2016)
Bildnachweise [nach oben]
[1]
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Slavery

$\blacktriangleright$  1. Description of Sarah's conflict and her resolution
  • 11-year-old Sarah is given a slave for her birthday
  • Sarah despises the fact that owning people is as natural as breathing for some
  • considers herself as a resister of slavery
  • when she tries to refuse the gift, she is told that her guardianship is legal and binding
  • is not content with that special "way of life"
  • mother insists on Sarah writing letters of apology to her guests $\rightarrow$ feels traitorous to her because she doesn't feel sorry for what she did
  • she gives in out of fear of being excluded
  • looks out the window and sees slave quarters, hates the thought that Hetty would be separated from her mother
  • decides that she cannot stand the thought of possessing a slave and sneaks into her father's library which she is forbidden to use
  • finds the South Carolina Justice of the Peace and Public Laws and copies a manumission document that will guarantee the release of Hetty from slavery
  • leaves the document in the library for everyone to see
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Analysis of conflict and feelings of narrator
Legende:
  • Means: "Evidence"
    $\rightarrow$ Interpretation
Point of View:
  • First person narrator
    $\rightarrow$ creates immediacy and connection with the protagonist
    $\rightarrow$inherent believability that is created through the first person perspective
    $\rightarrow$ first person point of view immediately tells the reader whose story this is
Analysis of conflict and feelings:
  • simile: "as if owning people was as natural as breathing" (l. 2)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah despises how people around her see slaves as naturally given
  • metaphor: "foul air" (l. 3)
    $\rightarrow$ emphasizes the fact that Sarah, although she is against slavery, is still a part of a world where slavery is common
  • personification: "a woman the winds and tides obeyed" (l. 6-7)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah's mother can be seen as a woman you don't contradict, even Sarah obeys her
  • climax: "unyielding through the night, for days and weeks" (l. 13)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah claims that she could endure a long period of time without writing the letters of apology and not bowing to the social conventions
  • figurative speech: "family pariah" (l. 16)
    $\rightarrow$ a pariah is a member of an oppressed, lower caste in India, also an outcast, Sarah is rather lonely with her opinion towards slavery in her family
  • repetition: "I feared the ostracism. I feared it most of all." (l. 16)
    $\rightarrow$ although she despises the concept of slavery, her fear of being excluded from her family is bigger which is why she bows to her mother
  • irony: "though I have been well-taught by my parents, my behavior on this occasion was exceedingly ill-mannered" (l. 20)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah considers herself as well-taught but doesn't think she did anything wrong by refusing a slave as a gift
  • symbol: Sarah's candle that she uses to sneak into the library and that is blown out when she rushes back upstairs when her mother rings for her slave Cindie
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah embodies a beacon of light in the dark times of slavery, however, the candle being blown out means that Sarah's endeavor did not have any effect
  • exclamation: "Oh to be a son!" (l. 42)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah actually wished to be a boy since being male means having greater knowledge, or access to knowledge to her
  • enumeration: "books of law, geography, philosophy, theology, history, botany, poetry, and the Greek humanities" (l. 39-40)
    $\rightarrow$ Sarah is saddened by the fact that she is not supposed to read all these books
    $\rightarrow$ interest in Greek humanities shows that Sarah believes in equality in humans
$\blacktriangleright$  3. Write a speech
Possible information for Introduction:
  • thanking for organising and hosting the international human rights conference for university students
  • great honour to be invited to speak to such an international gathering
  • conference is all about ‘taking action’
  • modern slavery needs to be urgently tackled
Main Part - Modern Slavery
Bar Chart:
  • domestic servitude: people forced to work in extremely hidden workplaces, including private homes
    $\rightarrow$ people can't escape slavery due to confiscated travel documents, isolated environments, restricted mobility and unfamiliar languages
  • labour exploitation: work that a person is required to provide against his/her will
    $\rightarrow$ forced laborers are regarded as property to be commercially exploited (like African-American slaves back in the days of Civil War)
  • sexual exploitation: exploits women, men or children in the sex industry (prostitution, pornography, strip clubs)
    $\rightarrow$ often held held against their will by force, fraud or coercion
  • unknown exploitation: many more cases of which we don't know yet
    $\rightarrow$ forced marriage falls under this classification
  • number of cases that involves children is terrifying
Plea for abolition of modern day slavery:
  • restrict traffickers: increase sentences for slave drivers and enable the courts to restrict activity that puts others at risk
    $\rightarrow$ more traffickers are identified, disrupted and brought to justice
    $\rightarrow$ Anti-Slavery Commissioner galvanises collective response to these terrible crimes
  • companies' help: have bigger reachthan legislation
    $\rightarrow$ flight attendants will be more empowered to report unusual behaviour
    $\rightarrow$ businesses like Coca-Cola should look into their supply chain and make sure that there are no instances of labour exploitation
  • cruelty and inhumanity of traffickers: are unlikely to stop because others tell them to
  • people lured by promises of better-paying jobs and legal immigration
    $\rightarrow$ forced to live in squalid conditions, and threatened with deportation
  • migrants are extremely vulnerable to exploitation (already suffer from some kind of slavery by handing their lives to the people who smuggle them over the borders
  • extremely important to recognize and to raise awareness of workers' rights
Possible Conclusion:
  • we can shine a light on slavery and everything it entails when we work together $\rightarrow$ world is going to be a better place
  • don't look away - report anything that seems strange
  • we all enjoy freedom, we are free to go wherever we want, to do whatever we want and to speak or think whatever we want $\rightarrow$ slaves do not have any kind of freedom, need our help and voices to end slavery
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Slavery

$\blacktriangleright$  1. Description of Sarah's conflict and her resolution
In the excerpt of Sue Monk Kidd's novel "The Invention of Wings", 11-year-old Sarah is given a slave for her birthday. When she shows her disdain about this present, she actually disrespects the etiquette and is sent to her room to write her guests letters of apology.
Sarah is the daughter of a rich planter family owning slaves - her father also being an attorney and judge. While it is normal for her family to own slaves, Sarah despises the fact that owning people is as natural as breathing for some people. She also considers herself as a resister of slavery and does not want a slave as a gift. When she tries to refuse the gift, she is told that her guardianship is legal and binding. Yet, she is not content with that special "way of life" and. However, Sarah's disrespectful and alien behaviour is not tolerated by her mother, so she forces Sarah to write letters of apology to her guests. For Sarah, this feels traitorous because she doesn't feel sorry for what she did. Yet, she is giving in out of fear of being excluded and ostracized. Writing the letters in her room, she is looking out the window and sees the slave quarters, hating the thought that Hetty will be separated from her mother the very next day. This is the moment when she decides that she can't stand the thought of possessing a slave and that she can't just do nothing about her situation, so she sneaks into her father's library which she is actually and officially forbidden to use. There, she finds the South Carolina Justice of the Peace and Public Laws and she copies a manumission document that will guarantee the release of Hetty from slavery. Sarah leaves the document in the library for everyone to see.
#slavery
Vorschlag A $\blacktriangleright$  2. Analysis of conflict and feelings of narrator
Sarah's inner conflict between her abolitionist feelings and the fear of being ostracized is portrayed through the use of various stylistic devices and her specific point of view.
The story is being told from the perspective of a first person narrator - Sarah Grimké. This creates immediacy and a connection between the reader and the protagonist. The first person perspective also creates an inherent believability; because the reader only sees and feels the story through Sarah's eyes, it seems to be completely true. In addition, the first person point of view immediately tells the reader whose story is being told.
The conflict begins with Sarah despising the tradition of owning slaves. People around her see slaves as being naturally given which is made evident through the simile "as if owning people was as naturl as breathing" (l. 2). The metaphor of "foul air" (l. 3) emphasizes the fact that Sarah, although she is against slavery, is still a part of a world where slavery is very common. Sarah in fact has her own boundaries - in form of her mother who is a woman "the winds and tides obeyed" (ll. 6f.). It is not easy to contradict her and Sarah thus follows her. Although she claims that she could endure a long period of time - which can be seen through the climax "unyielding through the night, for days and weeks" (l. 13) - without the ltters of apology and not bowing to social conventions. The protagonist is actually twisted between her humanistic attitude and the fear of being a "family pariah" (l. 16). This figurative speech refers to a member of an oppressed, lower caste in India, and can also be considered an outcast. Sarah is rather lonely with her opinion towards slavery in her family, which is also why she finally gives in to writing the letters of apology. This is also made clear through the repetition "I feared the ostracism. I feared it most of all." (l. 16); although Sarah despises the concept of slavery, her fear of being excluded from her family is bigger which is why she also bows to her mother. Despite bowing to her mother, the protagonist thinks that she didn't do anything wrong by refusing a slave as a gift. However, she is very ironic about that fact: "though I have been well-taught by my parents, my behavior on this occasion was exceedingly ill-mannered" (l. 20). There is also a symbol that stands for her resistance against slavery: the candle that she uses to sneak into the library and that is blown out when she rushes back upstairs when her mother rings for her slave Cindie. Sarah hence embodies a beacon of light in the dark times of slavery, however, the candle being blown out means that Sarah's endeavour did not have any effect. Sarah's main conflict is rather obvious: she detests slavery. Yet, there is another, more hidden conflict going on. It emerges when Sarah exclaims "Oh to be a son!" (l. 42). Sarah actually wishes to be a boy since to her, being male means having greater knowledge, or access to knowledge. Sarah is saddened by the fact that she is not supposed to read "books of law, geography, philosophy, theology, history, botany, peotry and the Greek humanities" (ll. 39f.). Especially her interest in Greek humanities shows that Sarah believes in equality in humans.
Vorschlag A $\blacktriangleright$  3. Write a speech
"Dear students
Thank you all for coming to the international human rights conference! I would also like to thank the organisers and hosts for this special event. It is a great honour to be invited to speak to such an international gathering. The topic is ages old and yet so present, it is terrifying. I am talking about modern slavery. This conference is all about 'taking action' and modern slavery is something that needs to be urgently tackled.
Please take a look at this bar chart. It shows the number of known cases of modern slavery. Domestic servitude, labour exploitation and sexual exploitation are all different versions of slavery - and there are even more forms of exploitation unknown. Just imagine this: people are forced to work in extremely hidden workplaces, including private homes. Yet, those people can't just escape slavery due to confiscated documents, isolated environments, restricted mobility and maybe an unfamiliar language. Labour exploitation looks similar: forced laborers are regarded as property to be commercially exploited, like Afrian-American slaves back in the days of Civil War. Being held as property is just not tolerable! And think about the sex industry that often exploits women, men and children within the fields of prostitution, pornography or strip clubs. Those are often held against their will by force, fraud or coercion. Now, you might think that the numbers are too high since you don't know anything about modern slavery or since you don't know anyone who might be associated with it, that doesn't mean it doesn't exist! You all know people from the media for instance who were forced to marry someone against their will. Slavery has many faces and we cannot turn our heads the other way!
We need to do something and we need to do a lot to stop this inhumane practice! We need to restrict traffickers for instance by increasing sentences for slave drivers and enabling the courts to restrict any activity that puts others at risk. That way, more traffickers can be identified, disrupted and brought to justice. An Anti-Slavery Commissioner could also galvanise the collective response to these terrible crimes. However, we need some companies' help because they have a bigger reach than the legislation. As a result, flight attendants will be more empowered to report any unusual behaviour. Or businesses like Coca-Cola should look more closely into their suppply chain and make sure that there are no instances of labour exploitation. Traffickers need to be stopped at all costs - just telling them to stop is no use, those people are cruel and inhumane, they are monsters! They lure their victims by promises of better-paying jobs and legal immigratio. And if they don't behave the way the traffickers want them to, they threaten their victims with deportation. Thus, migrants are extremely vulnerable to exploitation, people that already suffer from some kind of slavery by handing their lives to the people who smuggle them over the state borders. It is extremely important to recognize and to raise awareness of workers' rights!
Together, we can shine a light on slavery and everything it entails - the world will be a better place! But you can not look away - please report anything that seems strange to you. We all enjoy freedom, we are free to go wherever we want, to do whatever we want and to speak or think whatever we want. Slaves don't have any kind of freedom, they need our help and our voices to end slavery!"
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