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Vorschlag C

Aufgaben
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Protesting against oppression

Aufgaben
Teil A: Sprachmittlung
You take part in an international student project about the arts as a means of protest against oppression. Summarize the article for your fellow students. (Material 4)
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
1.
Summarize the article. (Material 5)
2.
Compare the events in Guguletu that led to Amy Biehl’s death as described in “Mother to Mother” to the student protests in 2015, also taking the photo into account. (Material 5)
3.
“All great art comes from a sense of outrage.” (Glenn Close, American actress)
Taking the quotation into account, assess the arts (i.e. literature, films, music, art, drama) as a means of protest.
#racism
Material 4
Christoph Wagner: Die Rezeption des Jazz als Barometer der Freiheit (2015)
$\;$
„I Got Rhythm – Kunst und Jazz seit 1920“ ist eine Ausstellung im Stuttgarter Kunstmuseum betitelt. Sie zeigt die Querverbindungen zwischen moderner Kunst und Jazz.
Im unteren Teil von Manhattan, in der East 2nd Street, steht das Kenkeleba House. Im Erdgeschoss befindet sich eine Galerie, darüber vierzig Ateliers. Zusammen mit seiner Frau Corinne Jennings betreibt Joe
5
Overstreet das Kunsthaus als gemeinnützige Unternehmung. Der 82-Jährige, der mit Jazzgrössen wie Eric Dolphy und Sun Ra befreundet war und Künstler wie Willem de Kooning und Robert Rauschenberg kannte, gehört bis heute zur raren Spezies afroamerikanischer Künstler, die sich der avantgardistischen Malerei verschrieben haben.
In der Ausstellung „I Got Rhythm – Kunst und Jazz seit 1920“ im Stuttgarter Kunstmuseum hängt
10
Overstreets Gemälde „Strange Fruit“ an prominenter Stelle. Es führt in die Thematik „Jazz und Rassendiskriminierung“ ein. Der Titel des Gemäldes bezieht sich auf den gleichnamigen Song der Jazzsängerin Billie Holiday, der vom Lynchmord an einem Afroamerikaner berichtet, dessen Füsse gespenstisch von links oben ins Bild baumeln. Jazz war in seinen besten Momenten oft auch Anklage und Protest, ein Schrei gegen Unrecht, rassistische Gewalt und Unterdrückung.
15
140 Kunstwerke, überwiegend Gemälde, aber auch Filme, LP-Covers, Objekte und Assemblagen[1], sind in der Ausstellung zu sehen, die die letzten hundert Jahre umspannt. Dazu gibt es viel Musik, die die Jazz-Historie von ihren Anfängen bis in die Jetztzeit hörbar macht. Es beginnt nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, als der Jazz aus den USA nach Europa schwappte. Die „hot music“ sorgte für helle Aufregung.
Mit exotischen Tänzen avancierte in Paris Josephine Baker zum Star. Der Architekt Adolf Loos entwarf 1927
20
eigens ein Haus für sie, dessen Modell in der Ausstellung zu sehen ist. Am Bauhaus[2] berauschte man sich ebenfalls an den wilden Tönen. Eine Bauhauskapelle wurde ins Leben gerufen. Dozenten wie Paul Klee spendeten Geld für den Kauf eines Saxofons.
Der Funke sprang auch auf Henri Matisse, Max Beckmann und Otto Dix über. Sie liessen sich von den hitzigen Klängen inspirieren und verarbeiteten die Impulse auf der Leinwand. Jazz avancierte zwischen den
25
Weltkriegen zum Emblem von Freiheit, Modernität und Urbanität. In Deutschland machten ab 1933 die Nationalsozialisten dem „Spuk“ der „Negermusik“ ein Ende. Jazz wurde als „entartet[3]“ deklariert – wie die moderne Kunst. 1938 prangte die Karikatur eines Jazzsaxofonisten auf dem Werbezettel für die Ausstellung „Entartete Musik“ in Düsseldorf, die auf die Münchner Schau „Entartete Kunst“ von 1937 folgte.
Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg lösten sich die Formen allmählich auf. Die Malerei wurde abstrakter, während sich die Jazzmusiker von Melodie, Harmonik und Swing-Rhythmen lösten […].
Christoph Wagner: Die Rezeption des Jazz als Barometer der Freiheit, in: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 30.10.2015. http://www.nzz.ch/feuilleton/musik/die-rezeption-des-jazzals-barometer-der-freiheit-1.18637973 (abgerufen am 17.01.2016).

Annotations
[1] Assemblagen: three-dimensional works of art
[2] Bauhaus: a German school of architecture and applied arts founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius on experimental principles of functionalism and truth to materials. Closed by the Nazis in 1933. Famous students a.o. Kandinsky, Klee, and Mies van der Rohe.
[3] entartet: degenerate
Material 5
$\;$
Christopher Torchia: South African police are firing rubber bullets and tear gas at students (2015)
Tear gas billowed and stun grenades exploded Wednesday as South African police pushed back students who had massed near the steps of parliament to protest university tuition hikes[1] amid some of the biggest student demonstrations since white minority rule ended in 1994.
The violence in Cape Town erupted after students shoved their way through a parliament gate and scuffled
5
with riot police, tossing water bottles and pushing up against the plastic shields of officers. Earlier, security guards inside parliament forcibly removed a group of opposition lawmakers from the floor after the legislators, who are sympathetic to the students, disrupted debate by chanting: “Fees must fall!”
Student protests against apartheid were much bigger and were sometimes met with deadly force by the government, notably in the bloody crackdown on a 1976 uprising started by thousands of high school
10
students in the Soweto area of Johannesburg.
Yet the spectacle of furious students sparring with police in democratic South Africa was bound to sharpen tensions between a growing national student movement on the one hand, and university administrations and the African National Congress-led government on the other.
The protest at parliament was part of a wave of nationwide demonstrations Wednesday at South African
15
universities, whose managers say they are struggling with higher operational costs as well as inadequate state subsidies.
Police also used stun grenades[2] and rubber bullets to disperse demonstrating students at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in the city of Port Elizabeth, as well as the University of Limpopo in Polokwane, South African media reported.
20
News channel eNCA posted [a] video on its website that showed police clearing a road blocked by students in Port Elizabeth. Protesters in Polokwane forced some students to stop taking exams, reported News24, a South African news outlet.
Students also marched in Pretoria, Johannesburg and other cities.
The protests began last week at the University of the Witwatersrand, also known as Wits, in Johannesburg.
25
After several days of demonstrations, it dropped plans for a proposed 10.5 percent tuition hike next year, and has suspended activities for the rest of this week because of the disruption. Other universities, including the University of Cape Town, have also stopped operations as exams loom for many students.
Vorschlag C
Vorschlag C
Students from the University of the Witwatersrand overturn a vehicle off campus after blocking traffic, during protests in Johannesburg, Monday Oct. 19, 2015. Students, demonstrating against the increase of tuition fees at some top South African universities, blocked roads and entrances and caused the suspension of classes on some campuses.
Blade Nzimande, the higher education minister, this week proposed a 6 percent limit on tuition fee increases next year, but student leaders rejected the proposal and said they would continue protests. Some
30
South African leaders have said the country’s education system is still trying to overcome the legacy of a system of racist rule that favored the white minority while denying basic rights and opportunities for the black majority.
However, critics also allege the government is not doing enough to subsidize the university education of its youth, many of whom struggle to pay for school.
35
“Student fees need to be affordable to allow for greater access to the poor, poor working class and even middle class families,” Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa said at an education forum last week.
The average tuition fee for a first-year undergraduate student studying humanities at Wits, a top South African university, is between $ \$ $2000 and $ \$ $3,200 this year, according to the university. Students who register for the first time also make a onetime payment of $ \$ $730.
40
The cost of text books and accommodation adds to the financial burden of university enrollment. These fees are difficult for many students and their families to meet.
“The government must do something to help us deal with this,” a student protester told eNCA outside parliament.
Christopher Torchia: South African police are firing rubber bullets and tear gas at students, in: Business Insider UK, 22.10.2015. http://uk.businessinsider.com/south-african-police-are-firing-rubber-bullets-and-tear-gas-at-students-2015-10?r=US&IR=T (abgerufen am 17.01.2016).

Annotations
[1] tuition hikes: rise in education costs
[2] stun grenades: Blendgranaten
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Protesting against oppression

Teil A: Sprachmittlung
  • text is about interconnections of modern art and Jazz
  • exhibition in art museum shows that interconnection
  • painting "Strange Fruit" links Jazz with race discrimination
  • "Strange Fruit" is a song by Jazz singer Billie Holiday about the lynching of an African-American
  • Jazz as protest against injustice, racist violence and oppression
  • when Jazz came to Europe, the so-called "hot music" caused a stir
  • architect built a house due to the influence of famous Jazz dancer Josephine Baker
  • painters like Henri Matisse and Max Beckmann were heavily influenced by the music, processed impulses on the canvas
  • Jazz as symbol of liberty, modernity and urbanity
  • Nazis declared Jazz as "black music" and as degenerated
  • after WW II, Jazz music detached from melody, harmony and swing-rhythms, painting got more abstract
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
$\blacktriangleright$  1. Summarize article
  • South African students protest against university tuition hikes outside of parliament
  • one of the biggest student demonstrations since white minority rule ended in 1994
  • student protests against apartheid were much bigger and sometimes ended deadly for the students
  • conflict between students and police in democratic South Africa sharpens tension between national student movement and university administrations / African National Congress-led government
  • nationwide demonstrations at South African universities $\rightarrow$ universities struggle with higher operational costs as well as inadequate state subsidies
  • government dropped plans for a 10.5 percent tuition hike for the next year
  • proposed 6% limit on tuition fee increases next year
  • student leaders rejected proposal and would continue protests
  • education system is still trying to overcome legacy of a system of racist rule
  • protests should allow for poorer working class families to attain education as well
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Comparison of events in Guguletu to student protests
Events that led to Amy Biehl's death in "Mother to Mother":
  • Mxolisi as product of his environment (childhood defined his character)
  • overall discontent of native population due to apartheid
  • Bantu Education Act: no chance to get proper education (vicious circle)
  • Mxolisi's Character: traumatized, under peer pressure, infected by the political climate
  • violence: use of obstacles as weapons against the police e.g. stones
  • Amy serves as a "trigger" $\rightarrow$ not about her as an individual, but is being seen as the representative of the system in the opinion of the offenders
Events that led to student protests:
  • proposed tuition fee hikes of between 10% and 12% sparked protests
  • demonstrations began at Johannesburg's University of the Witwatersrand when students blocked the entrance to the university campus, following indications that the institution would raise fees by 10.5% for 2016
  • demonstrations under the banner #FeesMustFall led to the closure of some of the country's top universities
  • car as a thorn in the side, symbollically preventing their way towards justice with regard to educational opportunities
    $\rightarrow$ car represents most likely the state
Comparison:
  • situation takes place during apartheid ("Mother to Mother") vs. events take place in immediate past under another government
  • frustration and hatred over system vs. frustration over educational system
  • education is being denied in both situations (Bantu Education Act vs. excessive costs)
  • Bantu education act 1953: enforcing racially separated educational facilities
  • demolition of car as means to let go of aggression harbored against the state
  • violent acts: Mxolisi was part of the stabbing of Amy vs
  • slogans "one settler, one bullet" and "whites are dogs" vs. students shout something with their hands held up high
  • both groups feel discriminated and oppressed (both times young people against government)
  • both Mxolisi and students live under empoverished circumstances
  • Mxolisi and students from the article are both parts of student movements
  • violence of government towards young people
$\blacktriangleright$  3. Assess arts as means of protest
Possible information for Introduction:
  • art has been a form and means of protest for centuries now
  • art has always been used to express certain criticism towards systems, individuals or they have a instructive message
  • quotation: outrage is connected to passion, if someone is passionate about something, they put their heart and soul in it and create more meaning through that
  • art conveys emotions and feelings (background story of origin of the piece of art)
Main Part - Examples that show art as means of protest
Pro arguments:
  • literature "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee
    $\rightarrow$ part of the civil rights movement
    $\rightarrow$ deals with race and prejudice and teaches readers valuable lessons about empathy and equality
    $\rightarrow$ Atticus protests Jim Crow laws through his attitude and actions $\rightarrow$ he is not afraid to go against the code of Maycomb society, he tries to teach his children the same sense of social justice (not allowing them to say the word "nigger")
  • films: Twelve Years a Slave"
    $\rightarrow$ Solomon Northup is tricked into slavery and forced to work under brutal conditions for twelve years
    $\rightarrow$ presents a startlingly accurate and verifiable account of the common slave experience $\rightarrow$ shows that racism - besides its barbarous inhumanity - is insanely inefficient
    $\rightarrow$ timeless indictment of the practice of “chattel bondage,” or human slavery
  • music: Billie Holiday’s "Strange Fruit"
    $\rightarrow$ protests against the lynching of African Americans at a time when it was socially excepted
  • art: Banksy
    $\rightarrow$ graffiti as a form of underclass "revenge" or guerilla warfare
    $\rightarrow$ works have dealt with various political issues like anti-war, anti-consumerism, anti-authoritarianism, …
Possible Conclusion:
  • art is not as ephemeral as human life but almost lasts forever, conveys meaning and messages forever
  • art can function as a means of protest, but can also just function to give special emphasis to beautiful things like love or nature or can just serve as a means of entertainment
  • art is a non-violent means of protest
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Protesting against oppression

Teil A: Sprachmittlung
Christoph Wagner's article "Die Rezeption des Jazz als Barometer der Freiheit" from 2015 is about the interconnections of modern art and Jazz. An exhibition in the art museum in Stuttgart shows that interconnection. Both art forms expressed a certain objection against racial injustices and oppression. The painting "Strange Fruit" by Joe Overstreet for instance links Jazz with racial discrimination. The artist was inspired by the song "Strange Fruit" by Billie Holiday that tells the story of the lynching of an African-American. Billie Holiday used Jazz as a protest against injustice, racist violence and oppression. When Jazz came to Europe however, the so-called "hot music" caused a stir. An architect even built a house due to the influence of the famous Jazz dancer Josephine Baker. Painters like Henri Matisse and Max Beckmann were heavily influenced by the music and processed the impulses they received by the music on the canvas. Jazz thus became a symbol of liberty, modernity and urbanity which is also why the Nazis declared Jazz as "black music" and as degenerated. After World War II, the Jazz music got more and more detached from melody, harmony and the swing-rhythms and the paintings got more abstract also.
Teil B: verkürzte Textaufgabe
$\blacktriangleright$  1. Summarize article
The article "South African police are firing rubber bullets and tear gas at students" by Christopher Torchia is about the South African students' protest against university tuition hikes outside of the South African parliament. It was one of the biggest student demonstrations since white minority rule ended in 1994.
The author of the article compares the student protests with the ones that were conveyed in order to fight the Apartheid. Back then, the protests were much bigger and sometimes ended deadly for the students. Today, the conflict between students and police in democratic South Africa sharpens the tension between the national student movement and university administrations and the African National Congress-led government. Nationwide demonstrations at South African universities have come up since universities struggle with higher operational costs as well as inadequate state subsidies. Consequently, the government has dropped the plans for a 10.5 percent tuition hike for the next year and proposed a 6% limit on tuition fee increases next year. Yet, the student leaders rejected the proposal and will continue the protests. All of this can be attributed to the legacy of a system of racist rule that still needs to be overcome by the educational system. Those protests should allow for poorer working class families to attain a proper education as well.
Vorschlag C $\blacktriangleright$  2. Comparison of events in Guguletu to student protests
The student protest as shown in the article by Christopher Torchia seem quite similar to the events that took place in Guguletu in the novel "Mother to Mother" by Sindiwe Magona. In both cases, young black people protest against something that they deem very unfair and which they connect to racism.
In order to compare the events that led to Amy Biehl's death in "Mother to Mother" with the student protests in South Africa, one must first look at the background information of the events. First of all, there is an overall discontent of the native poppulation due to the system of Apartheid. Also, the Bantu Education Act prevented black South Africans from getting proper education which thus led the people into a vicious circle from which they could hardly escape. The events in general are infused with a violent touch - the people use obstacles such as stones weapons against the police. The main character Mxolisi is in this context a product of his environment - his childhood and growing up without a father has definitely defined his character. He is in fact traumatized and infected by the political climate. Furthermore, he is a direct victim of peer pressure - we don't know for sure whether he would have behaved the same way if he had not been surrounded by his peers. Here, Amy serves as a "trigger": what happened there is not about her as an individual, but she is being seen as the representative of the system in the opinion of her offenders.
The events that led to the students' protests are quite similar. The proposed tuition fee hikes between 10% and 12% sparked protests. Demonstrations began at Johannesburg's University of the Witwatersrand when students blocked the entrance to the university campus, following indications that the institution would raise fees by 10.5% for 2016. Demonstrations under the banner #FeesMustFall led to the closure of some of the country's top universities. The car can be seen as a thorn in the side, symbollically preventing the way towards justice with regard to educational opportunities. The car most likely represents the state here.
The events mentioned before take place in different surroundings - Apartheid in "Mother to Mother's" case and the immediate past under another government. Both situations feature the frustration and hatred over the systems that keep the persons from exploiting their full potential. The right to education is being denied in both situations through the Bantu Education Act and the excessive costs to attend university. In order to let go of the aggression harbored against the state, a car is being wrecked and the students in "Mother to Mother" shout slogans such as "one settler, one bullet" and "whites are dogs" when the students in the article seem to be shouting something with their hands held up high as well. Consequently, both groups feel discriminated and oppressed and direct their hatred towards the government. They also live under impoverished circumstances and in order to evoke change, they are parts of student movements. The only difference in the events is the outcome: in "Mother to Mother", the frustration is directly directed towards an innocent girl who is actually murdered whereas the students in the article go against the government as a whole and they don't hurt anyone.
Vorschlag C $\blacktriangleright$  3. Assess arts as means of protest
Wall paintings date back to the Stone Age, telling stories of a long bygone era and giving the people nowadays hints to how life as been back then. However, art doesn't just serve to examine other cultures, it has actually been a form and means of protest for centuries now. It has been used to express certain criticism towards systems, individuals or it can also have an instructive message. Glenn Close, a famous American actress, once said that “All great art comes from a sense of outrage.” and she is right about that - outrage is always connected to passion and if someone is passionate about something, he or she puts their heart and soul in it and creates more meaning through that. In addition, art always conveys emotions and feelings which can be derived from the background story of origin of the piece of art.
A lot of examples can be found in literature, film or music that prove that art is powerful and always transmits a message. The novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee was a part of the civil rights movement for instance. It deals with race and prejudice and teaches readers valuable lessons about empathy and equality. In the novel, the character Atticus Finch protests against the Jim Crow laws through his attitude and actions. He is in fact not at all afraid to go against the code of Maycomb society and tries to teach his children same sense of social justice by not allowing them to say the word "nigger" for instance.
In the movie "Twelve Years a Slave", Solomon Northup is tricked into slavery and forced to work under brutal conditions for twelve years. It presents a startingly accurate and verifiable account of the common slave experience and shows that racism - besides its barbarous inhumanity - is insanely inefficient. Thus, it is a timeless indictment of the practice of "chattel bondage" or human slavery.
Another artist who constantly conveys messages with his art is Banksy, a famous graffiti artist. Graffiti is a form of underclass "revenge" or guerilla warfare. Banksy's works for instance have dealt with various political issues like anti-war, anti-consumerism or anti-authoritarianism.
Art is not as ephemeral as human life but almost lasts forever and thus, conveys meaning and messages forever. Art can also function as a means of protest, but it can also just function to give special emphasis to beautiful things like love or nature or can just serve as a means of entertainment. But what is more, art does not need violence in order to protest against systems.
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