Inhalt
Smarter Learning!
Inhalt
Bundesland, Schulart & Klasse
Bundesland, Schulart & Klasse
MV, Gymnasium
Baden-Württemberg
Berufl. Gymnasium (AG)
Berufl. Gymnasium (BTG)
Berufl. Gymnasium (EG)
Berufl. Gymnasium (SGG)
Berufl. Gymnasium (TG)
Berufl. Gymnasium (WG)
Berufskolleg - FH
Gemeinschaftsschule
Gymnasium (G8)
Gymnasium (G9)
Hauptschule
Realschule
Werkrealschule
Bayern
Fachoberschule
Gymnasium
Mittelschule
Realschule
Berlin
Gymnasium
Integrierte Sekundarschule
Brandenburg
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Oberschule
Bremen
Gymnasium (G8)
Oberschule (G9)
Hamburg
Gymnasium
Stadtteilschule
Hessen
Berufl. Gymnasium
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium (G8)
Gymnasium (G9)
Haupt- und Realschule
Hauptschule
Realschule
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Niedersachsen
Gymnasium (G8)
Gymnasium (G9)
Integrierte Gesamtschule
Kooperative Gesamtschule
Oberschule
Realschule
NRW
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Hauptschule
Realschule
Sekundarschule
Rheinland-Pfalz
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Saarland
Gemeinschaftsschule
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Realschule
Sachsen
Gymnasium
Oberschule
Sachsen-Anhalt
Fachgymnasium
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Sekundarschule
Schleswig-Holstein
Gemeinschaftsschule
Gymnasium (G8)
Gymnasium (G9)
Thüringen
Berufl. Gymnasium
Gemeinschaftsschule
Gesamtschule
Gymnasium
Regelschule
Klasse 11
Klasse 12
Klasse 11
Klasse 10
Klasse 9
Klasse 8
Klasse 7
Klasse 6
Klasse 5
Fach & Lernbereich
Fachauswahl: Englisch
Mathe
Deutsch
Englisch
Bio
Chemie
Physik
Geschichte
Geo
Lernbereich
Digitales Schulbuch
Lektürehilfen
Abitur eA
Abitur gA
VERA 8
Mittlerer Schulabschluss
Abitur gA
Prüfung
wechseln
Abitur eA
Abitur gA
VERA 8
Mittlerer Schulabschluss
Smarter Learning!
Schneller lernen mit deinem SchulLV-Zugang
  • Zugang zu über 1.000 Original-Prüfungsaufgaben mit Lösungen von 2004-2019
  • Alle Bundesländer und Schularten, empfohlen von über 2.300 Schulen in Deutschland
  • Digitales Schulbuch: Über 1.700 Themen mit Aufgaben und Lösungen
  • Monatlich kündbar, lerne solange du möchtest
Jetzt Zugang freischalten!

Aufgabenblock II

Aufgaben
Download als Dokument:PDF
1.
Point out the effects of climate change on low-lying countries and the measures taken to deal with the situation (Material 1).
2.
Analyze the means the author uses to show the urgency of the problem (Material 1).
3.
Pooja Bhatia is deputy editor of the online magazine OZY.com. Write a letter to her in which you assess the potential success of measures like underwater conferences (Material 2) as well as of other measures taken to raise people's awareness of environmental problems.
#letter#globalwarming#analysis#pointout
Material 1
$\;$
Pooja Bhatia: Islands fight to stay above water amid climate change
Rising seas, disappearing glaciers, melting ice, storm surges: The threat of climate change still feels distant to many people.
Not for residents of small, low-lying islands in the Pacific. Global warming has arrived, and it's turned their
5
nations - Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Palau, Kiribati and others - into slowly sinking ships. In some regions, the freshwater has turned salty, farmlands are barren and officials say rising waters will submerge entire nations by century's end unless concerted action is taken.
Concerted action has most definitely not been taken.
As a result, many of these countries have resorted to extreme measures. […]
10
"There's a real existential question for these islands," says Earthjustice1 attorney Erika Rosenthal, who works with small island states to stem the volatile tides of global warming. For these tiny nations, climate change raises the "most urgent questions of national sovereignty."
[…] Well before the water submerges them, the islands will become uninhabitable. Salt water contaminates drinking-water supplies and ruins arable land2. Subsidence3 and increased flooding wipe away coastline
15
dwellings. Then there's the evil twin of global warming, ocean acidification, which harms sea creatures and those who eat and sell them. […]
In the capital atoll of the Marshall Islands, "The principal source of drinking water is capturing rainwater runoff4 from the airport runway," because the groundwater has become undrinkable, says Michael Gerrard, a Columbia law professor who advises the tiny nation on legal remedies. Insult to injury: The north of the
20
country is in the midst of a serious drought. […]
Climate-change talks and treaties have offered the islands little recourse. The United States, responsible for 18 percent of global emissions, hasn't ratified the Kyoto Protocol5. Canada dropped out last year. Kyoto's successor treaty, to take effect in 2020, is being negotiated now6, but carbon-emitting infrastructure moves at a much faster pace than international bureaucracy. "Every time a coal-fire plant is built, they're locking in
25
infrastructure" that contributes to future warming, says Rosenthal — and delaying an inevitable move to renewable energy. Climate-change negotiators generally agree on a goal to limit warming to 2 degrees Celsius, but analysts say that goal is unrealistic and has likely already been scuttled.
When the survival of your island nation rests with powers much larger than you, what do you do?
In 2009, the Marshall Islands' ambassador to the U.S. asked Gerrard to look into that very question, as well
30
as other queries that sound surreal: Is a country underwater still a nation-state? Does it retain its seat at the United Nations? What happens to national assets like fishing rights? And where should its citizens go? […]
Meanwhile, island leaders are pushing the boundaries of international law in seeking attention and, ultimately, emissions reductions.
$\;$
  • Former Maldivian president Mohammed Naheed and his cabinet donned scuba gear for an underwater press conference on global emissions.
  • The Federated States of Micronesia demanded that the Czech Republic decommission a coal-fired power station by 2016 instead of expanding it, citing the effect of carbon emissions on its national fate. […]
  • The Association of Small Island States is making a concerted effort to get big carbon emitters, including emerging economies like those of India, China and Brazil, to begin reducing emissions before 2020.
It's not just small islands, of course. Later this month, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the largest worldwide monitor, is expected to announce that coastal cities will drown by 2100, absent serious reductions in carbon emissions. The United States will likely see its first climate refugees well before that —
45
perhaps as soon as 2017, when the sea may wash away native communities in Alaska.
It's some of the trickiest diplomacy in the world. After all, these tiny and typically poor countries generally don't want to risk alienating their biggest foreign aid donors — not least because they'll need help mitigating the damage caused by flooding, salination7 and subsidence.
But at some point in the near future, there won't be much choice.
Pooja Bhatia, OZY.com.:Islands fight to stay above water amid climate change, (27. September 2013).


[1] Earthjustice: a non-profit public interest law organization based in the United States dedicated to environmental issues
[2] arable land: land used for farming
[3] subsidence: the process by which an area of land sinks to a lower level than normal
[4] runoff: rainwater that runs off into the sea
[5] Kyoto Protocol: an international agreement which commits its parties to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It was signed in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997
[6] the Paris agreement: the successor treaty was ratified in October 2016
[7] salination: build-up of salts in soil, groundwater or drinking-water
Material 2
Maldives government highlights the impact of climate change … by meeting underwater
Aufgabenblock II
Aufgabenblock II
https://goo.gl/tEumVH
Weiter lernen mit SchulLV-PLUS!
Jetzt freischalten
Infos zu SchulLV PLUS
Ich habe bereits einen Zugang
Zugangscode einlösen
Login
Lösungen
Download als Dokument:PDF
$\blacktriangleright$  Point out effects of climate change and measures taken against it
The article "Islands fight to stay above water amid climate change" on www.OZY.com by Pooja Bhatia deals with the effects of climate change on nations that lie just above the sea level and the measures their governments have executed in order to handle the situation.
Introduction
The consequences of climate change and global warming are obvious - rising levels, extreme weather conditions, ocean acidification. But what does this really mean for nations like Micronesia or the Marshall Islands? First of all, they have severe problems with their freshwater - in some regions, it has already turned salty, contamining freshwater and drinking-water supplies and it hence ruins cultivatable land. In addition, farmlands are barren and people cannot grow crops anymore. Moreover, floodings and subsidence of the ground are wiping away houses that are located close to the coastline. If no actions will be taken, the rising sea level will flood whole countries by the end of the 21st century. Not only are islands affected but coastal cities all over the world as well - they will drown by 2100. And very soon, the ocean might be flooding parts of Alaska, turning its people - and those on the islands as well - into climate refugees.
Main Part
effects
But the island nations don't sit around waiting for something to happen - they actively try to prevent worse from happening. As a first step, the inhabitants of the Marshall Islands capture the rainwater that collects on the airport runway as drinking water. This is just one direct measure to deal with the situation. In order to prevent the sea levels from rising further, bigger steps need to be taken - the problem needs to be tackled at the source. Hence, the Paris agreement was implemented in 2017, an international agreement that plans on reducing greenhouse emissions. Moreover, the governments of the islands try to seek international attention for their problems by holding an underwater press conference on global emissions for instance. In addition, they demand that bigger coal-fired power stations be closed like the one in the Czech Republic. In general, they try to convince big carbon emitters like India, China and Brazil of reducing emissions before 2020.
measures
In conclusion, global warming will eventually result in those islands being washed over by the oceans. In order to prevent this from happening every nation on this planet needs to take measurements and start to reduce greenhouse emissions.
Conclusion
$\blacktriangleright$  Analyze means to show urgency of problem
The article "Islands fight to stay above water amid climate change" on www.OZY.com by Pooja Bhatia deals with the effects of climate change on nations that lie just above the sea level and the measures their governments have executed in order to handle the situation. She uses different means to convince the reader of the urgency of the problem.
Introduction
At the beginning, she paints the picture of paradise wiith regard to those islands. However, she slowly destroys this picture by explicitly explaining what has happened to the island in terms of global warming. The author uses a lot of stylistic devices to help the reader understand the situation. First of all, Pooja Bhatia starts off with a personification in the title of the article - "Islands fight to stay above water" (l. 1) in order to point out that those tiny island nations really need to fight against climate change, this war is something tangible and concrete. The very first sentence displays a climax "rising seas, disappearing glaciers, melting ice, storm surges" (l. 2) underlining the fact that climate change is real and already causing trouble even though she downplays it by claiming that it "still feels distant to many people [but] [n]ot for residents of […] islands in the Pacific" (l. 1-2). This juxtaposition shows that climate change is already happening and the metaphor that compares the islands with "slowly sinking ships" (l. 5) helps understanding that. That the nations mainly responsible for that desaster are not doing anything against it but in fact accelerate the process shows the comparison "carbon-emitting infrastructure moves at a much faster pace than international bureaucracy" (l. 23-24).
Main Part
stylistic devices
Moreover, Bhatia uses quotations of Earthjustice attorney Erika Rosenthal and Columbia law professor Michael Gerrard (l. 10 & 19) to support her theses. She draws information from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as well which lends her credibility. People are more likely to believe an article when various professionals or institutions are quoted.
quotations
The author also actively involves the readers by asking rhetoric questions like "when the survival of your island nation rests with powers much larger than you, what do you do?" (l. 28). She shows the hopelessness and dependency of those islands with that and directly adresses the reader which is thought-provoking. Furthermore, she asks provoking questions later on, wondering whether "a country underwater [was] still a nation-state" (l. 30). Hence, she is actually making a joke out of the ridiculousness of the situation - a nation underwater cannot exist! With her questions, she suggests that the other countries simply don't care about the situation.
questions
Also, Bhatia's article features a list with measures that have already been taken in order to stop the islands from drowning (l. 34-41). With that list, it becomes more tangible for the reader what needs to be done and what kind of attention the governments of the islands seek in order to stop the bigger nations from producing more greenhouse emissions.
In addition, Bhatia sets some kind of frame around her article, claiming that the US haven't ratified the Kyoto Protocol, although they are mostly responsible for the 18 percent of global emissions (l. 22). However, they will also be the first to be directly hit by climate refugees when native communities in Alaska will likely be drowned by the end of 2017 (l. 45). But those small island-states can't directly critizice the US since they are the biggest foreign aid donors (l. 47).
In conclusion, the author has amplified her article and its and her very message by using different means like stylistic devices, thought-provoking questions and quotations of professors or attorneys. This enhances the author's argumentation that people need to be more aware of what is happening to islands with regard to global warming and that change is immanent and needs to come from big carbon-emitting nations.
Conclusion
$\blacktriangleright$  Write a letter
Dear Pooja Bhatia,
reading your article, I was pretty impressed about how little I knew about what will really happen to islands like the Maldives when sea levels continue to rise on a constant level. We are made aware of global warming and glaciers melting and the direct consequences like rising sea levels and extreme weather conditions, but we don't know what this is really doing to the people living or the animals that have their living spaces there.
Introduction
When I was looking for further information on the Internet, I found out about the underwater conference that you mentioned in your article and that was held in order to seek attention from population. However, I am not quite sure, whether this is really getting to people - I am wondering whether it is broadcasted enough? Moreover, the conference shows what kind of situations we will have to face if we will stick to ignoring the consequences of our doings. What it doesn't show though is how people reacted on it and - even more important - what the individual can do to stop this from happening.
Main Part
underwater conference
I believe that such examples are much more tangible for people if they come from someone they can relate to - like artists or normal citizens. Many artists have focused on creating objects that highlight environmental problems. For instance, the artist Basia Irland creates books of frozen river water with seeds in them, that will eventually slow down the erosion from the river bank. When the ice books are melting, it represents the effects of climate change and the thinning of ice floes. Or think about the photographer Benjamin von Wong who has photographed mermaids amidst an ocean of plastic bottles to raise awareness for plastic pollution of the oceans. This makes the effects of global warming much more real - due to the influence of media which broadcasts the projects that is.
artistic objects
Through various platforms like Buzzfeed or 9gag, both social news and entertainment companies, awareness of environmental problems and sometimes even solutions is raised by posting articles about people who actively fight against those problems. If they post something about a person who has committed his or her lifestyle to living with zero waste, many people - especially students or teenagers - will hear about it because of the long range of those platforms. Hence, it is much easier to seek attention over this kind of channel because much more people will actually see the problems and will also be presented with something they can do to fight environmental issues! I think this has a great impact!
Moreover, inventions that that try to reduce waste for instance and therefore fight against environmental problems help raise awareness. In 2016, the first edible and bio-degradable cutlery was invented - revolutionizing plastic cutlery industry. And another type of plastic that is actually disposable and made from a component of seaweed works just as well as real plastic! These inventions draw the interest of many people and even though it is just a small step, it will change the world eventually and it is always like that - if one person you know starts doing something, others will join very soon. People are already as creative as to invent things that help save the planet - this inspires more and more people to do the same and to overthink their choices in life.
inventions
In my opinion, people are very receptive for contributing to saving the planet - if they only have a platform to do so and if they have something like role models or people they can orientate themselves towards. It would thus be great, if you could post more about those witty and ingenoius people who save the world and who deserve more attention. Thank you so much!
Yours sincerely,
Sophie Hall
Conclusion
Weiter lernen mit SchulLV-PLUS!
Jetzt freischalten
Infos zu SchulLV PLUS
Ich habe bereits einen Zugang
Zugangscode einlösen
Login
Folge uns auf
SchulLV als App