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# Part 3

Aufgaben

## Part 3: How to learn words in a foreign language

Read the text and then tick the correct statement. There is only one correct solution per statement.
$\,$
When trying to learn a foreign language, most of us have the same complaint: “I’m just not good at memorising.” Learning new vocabulary can be daunting. But here’s the good news: You can forget the long vocabulary study sheets, or reading the dictionary from A to Z.
Many language learners are used to trying to memorise unrelated words: envelope, tired, January, receive, onion. But who can recall those words over a long period of time? Instead, focus on a single topic each week. The mind naturally clusters connected words together, so learning, say, types of weather in one lesson, and parts of the body the next, works in tune with your brain’s natural system for classifying information.
It might seem logical to study opposites together: hot/cold, always/never. It isn't. A learning hiccup called 'cross association' can occur when you learn two words so closely together: you end up mixing them up. If a German student learns 'cheap' (billig) and 'expensive' (teuer) together, they might later use one word when they mean to use the other. Instead, study the more common word first (e.g.: deep) and, once it’s retained, learn its opposite (shallow).
When encountering a new word, take a look at its structure. Many words consist of prefixes and suffixes, and an understanding of these parts of speech is advantageous. The English word unbreakable, for example, contains the negating prefix un- and the adjective-forming suffix -able. Studying word structures can help you make educated guesses when encountering new words.
Reading, listening and watching something in the foreign language helps you revisit vocabulary, and see and hear those words in new sentences and contexts. One excellent source of foreign language exposure is through graded readers, which are designed specifically for language learners. Other good sources are YouTube channels, advertisements, or simply your favourite songs, which tend to use everyday language.
Linguist Michael Lewis encourages language learning in chunks of words, rather than just learning single words. Daily communication involves common phrases: “turn left,” “just a minute,” “nice to meet you.” When studying a new language, memorise these phrases and you'll have a ready set of phrases, without the stress of having to build your sentences word by word.
We hope that language teachers also keep these tips in mind and don’t try to motivate their students to learn vocabulary by regularly testing them on individual words. Otherwise, it might be difficult to get around the ‘good old’ vocabulary sheets.
Learning-a-foreign-language-five-most-common-mistakes.html (retrieved on April 18, 2016)
11
Vocabulary study sheets
 are better than using dictionaries. are not very helpful when learning words. help people who are not good at memorising vocabulary.
12
Clustering
 means grouping words. helps to learn unrelated words. is a way of finding out opposites.
13
“Deep” and “shallow”
 are equally common. are hard to confuse. should be learned one after the other.
14
When coming across new words
 looking at their structure can help you find out their meaning. it is easier to guess their meaning when they are part of a speech. prefixes might help determine if a word is an adjective.
15
Good language sources
 need to be designed for language learners. can be found on the internet. contain lots of new words.
16
Language teachers should
 often test their students’ word knowledge. give their students vocabulary sheets. follow the given advice.
17
Michael Lewis
 argues against learning isolated words. says that learning phrases is stressful for learners. claims building sentences word-by-word helps you memorise words.

(7P)
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$\blacktriangleright$  Tick the correct statement
11
Vocabulary study sheets
 are better than using dictionaries. are not very helpful when learning words. help people who are not good at memorising vocabulary.
12
Clustering
 means grouping words. helps to learn unrelated words. is a way of finding out opposites.
13
“Deep” and “shallow”
 are equally common. are hard to confuse. should be learned one after the other.
14
When coming across new words
 looking at their structure can help you find out their meaning. it is easier to guess their meaning when they are part of a speech. prefixes might help determine if a word is an adjective.
15
Good language sources
 need to be designed for language learners. can be found on the internet. contain lots of new words.
16
Language teachers should
 often test their students’ word knowledge. give their students vocabulary sheets. follow the given advice.
17
Michael Lewis
 argues against learning isolated words. says that learning phrases is stressful for learners. claims building sentences word-by-word helps you memorise words.
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