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Teil A

Aufgaben

Leseverstehen und Schreiben integriert

1.
Describe the steps of and the reasons for the students’ action as well as the reactions they cause.
2.
Analyse how suspense is created. Consider stage directions, dialogue and voice-over.
Choose one of the following tasks:
3.1
Comment on the chances and dangers of the students’ action and its relevance for contemporary U.S. society.
OR

3.2
The following day, The Nashville Tennessean, a daily newspaper in Nashville, published a report about the students’ action. Write that newspaper report covering the perspectives of the different sides involved.
#comment#article
Material 1

Danny Strong The Butler (2013)

This is an extract from the film script The Butler. The scene is set in 1960. At the beginning, Louis Gaines, Carol Hammie, and other students attend a meeting at Fisk University, a university in Nashville, Tennessee, originally for African-Americans. The speaker is James Lawson, an African-American priest and civil rights activist.
$\;$
JAMES LAWSON (CONT’D)
So we’re gonna form an army, you and I. This army has one weapon, and this weapon is love. Now I am of the--yes?
CAROL (raising her hand)
5
If our only weapon is love and their weapons are… weapons, isn’t that dangerous?
JAMES LAWSON
You can be killed. If anyone is uncomfortable with that, you know where the door is. I understand that sounds provocative, but it’s true.
No one does.
10
JAMES LAWSON (CONT’D)
Alright kids. It’s show time.
Masking his excitement to this new world, Louis tries to be cool, giving Carol an assured nod. […]
EXT. DOWNTOWN NASHVILLE – DAY – 1960
Louis and Carol walk down the street with several other students. All nervous but determined. Carol grabs
15
Louis’ hand as they walk toward A WOOLWORTHS DEPARTMENT STORE.
JAMES LAWSON V.O.
Ghandi has demonstrated for us that a brown man, in his native land, or anywhere that he is being oppressed, can pull himself out of segregation with patience, with persistence, with intelligence and thought.
20
INT. WOOLWORTHS LUNCH COUNTER – 2ND FLOOR – DAY – 1960
The five students walk up to the LUNCH COUNTER. It is half filled with WHITE PATRONS.
JAMES LAWSON V.O.
With discipline, and a bit of a sense of humor.
The black students sit down at the counter. The white patrons immediately look at them, stunned. A
25
WAITRESS drops her tray.
WAITRESS
You know y’all can’t sit here.
LOUIS
We would like to be served, please.
30
JAMES LAWSON V.O.
This is unprecedented what we’re talking about. But it needs a patience that none of us have ever seen.
WAITRESS
You can order food in the colored section, but I’m not going to be serving you here.
The students stare forward. They aren’t going to move. […]
35
Patrons stare at the students. Every one is giving them confused and dirty looks. BLACK PATRONS sitting in the ‘colored only section’ look nervous. The students all look calm as they stare forward, waiting to be served.
JAMES LAWSON V.O.
We are organized. We have a leader with every group. We have lookouts, with pocket change, and the local
40
phone numbers for ambulances ready. And when one wave comes off that lunch counter, what follows? A whole ‘nother wave of negro students sitting right there at that lunch counter blowing their minds.
Louis turns to the Waitress.
LOUIS
We would like to be served, please.
She just stares back at him like he’s crazy.
Danny Strong, The Butler, The Weinstein Company, 2013, S. 39 – 41
www.pages.drexel.edu/~ina22/splaylib/Screenplay-Butler.pdf (Zugriff: 19.06.2016)

Annotations
[1] CONT’D: continued
[2] EXT.: exterior
[3] V.O.: voice over
[4] Ghandi: misspelling of Gandhi
[5] INT.: interior
[6] pocket change: here: coins for making a phone call
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$\blacktriangleright$  1. Description of steps of and reasons for students' actions as well as reactions
• James Lawson, a priest and civil rights activist invokes a rebellious, yet peaceful action
• everybody "can pull himself out of segregation with patience, with persistence, with intelligence and thought"
• at a Woolworth's Department Store, a group of black students sits down at the lunch counter that is supposed to only serve white customers
• white patrons look at the group of black students and are seemingly shocked
• waitress drops her tray and tells group that they are not allowed to sit there
• black guy called Louis friendly asks waitress to be served
• waitress is persistent in not serving the black group in that parlor and sends them to the colored section
• students don't move away
• patrons stare at the students and give them confused and dirty looks
• black patrons who sit in the colored section also look nervous
• black group is prepared: one leader in every group, pocket change, phone numbers for ambulances in case something happens
• Louis again asks to be served
• waitress keeps staring at him as if he's crazy
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Analysis of creation of suspense
• suspense is created through various means: stage directions, dialogue, voice over, stylistic means
• strong words (war): "we're gonna form an army", "weapon" (l. 2)
$\rightarrow$ creates the illusion that people are actually going to war and fight the system
• antithesis: "this weapon is love" (l. 2)
$\rightarrow$ viewer might be confused since the group is going to war but they are going to fight with love - how could this possibly work out?
• stage direction: "raising her hand" (l. 4)
$\rightarrow$ first objection to going to war follows
• repetition: "weapons" (l. 5)
$\rightarrow$ poses the question about how that group will win a fight peacefully
• statement: "You can be killed." (l. 7)
$\rightarrow$ James Lawson states that the planned event will be dangerous and that people can get killed which increases the anticipation of the audience
• provocation: "you know where the door is" (l. 7)
$\rightarrow$ audience expects that someone will leave due to the riskiness of the move
• stage direction: "No one does." (l. 9)
$\rightarrow$ the group commits to stick to the plan, audience still doesn't know how that plan will look like
• euphism: "It's show time." (l. 11)
$\rightarrow$ Lawson portrays the action as a show with the purpose of entertainment, doesn't seem as dangerous anymore
• stage direction: "Louis (…), giving Carol an assured nod." (l. 12)
$\rightarrow$ Carol seems to have doubts about the action whereas Louis seems to be confident
• stage direction: "Carol grabs Louis' hand" (l. 14f.)
$\rightarrow$ symbol of unification
• voice over: "Ghandi has demonstrated for us …" (l. 17-19)
$\rightarrow$ underlines happenings, states that what is about to happen is rather an intellectual battle, shows that others who had persisted, had won the fight
• voice over: "sense of humor" (l. 23)
$\rightarrow$ anticipation of audience increases, foreshadows that the action will be peaceful yet mind-blowing
• stage directions: "A WAITRESS drops her tray." (l. 24f.)
$\rightarrow$ something big is about to happen, waitress is shocked over the black students in her parlor
• waitress' function: comments on the situation and on what's going on
• stage direction: "students stare forward" (l. 34)
$\rightarrow$ students don't react on waitress' statement, they don't care about the rules
• antithesis: "BLACK PATRONS (…) look nervous. The students all look calm (…)" (l. 36)
$\rightarrow$ contrast between the groups
• stage direction: "Louis turns to the Waitress." (l. 43)
$\rightarrow$ moment of suspense, audience doesn't know what is going to happen
$\blacktriangleright$  3.1 Comment on chances and dangers of students' action
Possible information for Introduction:
• summary of the happenings in the text, explanation of who the persons are, summary of the movie The Butler
• revealing other examples of such actions, e.g. Rosa Parks who sat in the white section of the bus and was put in jail for this transgression of the laws
Main Part - Chances and Dangers
Chances:
• attention of public sphere people across the country might hear from the action
$\rightarrow$ either they might support the movement or they might come up with their own actions
$\rightarrow$ purview increases
• thought-provoking: other black people might take their situation for granted and do not have the feeling that they can rebel against it
$\rightarrow$ through that action, they might wake up and might actually want to change their situation for the better
$\rightarrow$ people see the outcome and might be inspired by it
• call for action: other blacks might join the movement or might boycot diners the same way that the group of students did
$\rightarrow$ movement would get bigger and would have more effect
• solidarity: others might "strike" as well
$\rightarrow$ Rosa Parks: sat in the white section of a bus, got arrested, other blacks protestet by not riding the bus but walking to work
$\rightarrow$ one year later, the segregational laws for busses were abolished
Dangers:
• violent backlash: whites might react violently due to the breaking of the rules
$\rightarrow$ might result in killing or wounding others (even innocent bystanders)
• intervention of the state: police officers might observe what's happening
$\rightarrow$ people might get arrested and will only be able to get out of jail if someone bails them out
• public awareness : protesters get arrested or get publicly known
$\rightarrow$ their family and friends are being made attackable
$\rightarrow$ are put in danger, opponents might threaten them
• protesters are being recorded/listed: when they are listed as protesters, it will be harder to get a job
• risking future career: being part of activists' movement might resulting in being excluded from university
$\rightarrow$ people will return to vicious cycle without proper education
• stirring "unnecessary" trouble : other black people might think that this will cause backlashes on them as well
$\rightarrow$ they don't want to be confronted with unnecessary trouble
• worsening of situation: whites might feel "threatened"
$\rightarrow$ can cause further restriction of black people's rights
• influence on image of black people : might get damaged due to white people claiming that black people deserve restrictions
$\rightarrow$ vicious circle continues
Relevance for contemporary U.S. society:
• protests against travel ban introduced by Trump
$\rightarrow$ objections from judges, travel ban is against the laws
• protests against high tuition fees
$\rightarrow$ former presidential candidate Bernie Sanders supported that movement
• occupy Wall street
$\rightarrow$ 3,000 people protested against greed and corruption in the financial system and government with the intention of occupying Wall Street
Possible Conclusion:
• there are more dangers to the students' action than chances
• nevertheless, chances have a much more positive effect
• when a lot of people get together, they have the power to change something bigger
$\blacktriangleright$  3.2 Write a newspaper report
• Students' protest at Woolworth Department Store attracts attention
• Black student group breaks segregational rule at local department store
• Anarchy erupts at innocent department store
Byline and place line:
• by Sophie Becker
• NASHVILLE, TN
• Yesterday, a group of black students of Fisk University sat in white section of the Woolworth Department Store's lunch parlor and asked to be served. By doing so, they actively protested against the presumably unfair treatment of having to sit in another parlor due to their skin colour.
Body of the report:
• a group of 7 black students decided to sit in the white section of the food parlor of the Woolworth Department store
• they asked the waitress to be served even though they were not sitting in their appointed section
• waitress refused to serve them, pointing out that the students could only get food in the colored section
• black student friendly insisted on being served
• waitress was overchallenged with that situation and called the police
• white patrons were indignant and upon hearing that the students would not leave for the colored section a clash between black and white people arose
• two people were severly wounded and had to go to the hospital, two were only slightly injured
• police arrived and arrested the black students who were not injured due to violation of the law
• the two black students who needed medical treatment will face their charges after their recovery
Perspectives of the different sides:
• black students: feel that they are right, don't think they did something wrong, want the same rights as white people, did not use violence
• white patrons: believe the black students were disrespectful, had to intervene when the black students didn't follow the waitress' demand, didn't care if they hurt someone by doing so, had to enforce the law until police came
• waitress: was just doing her job, was shocked when black students were sitting in her area when they were supposed to sit in the colored section, didn't want to serve them because that was against the law, doesn't understand why they were not listening
• black patrons: didn't understand what was going on, couldn't understand why the other black group wasn't sitting in the colored section, didn't want any trouble with the law, didn't defend them due to that reason
Inclusion of quotes:
• waitress: "I was so shocked, I couldn't believe my eyes! No one ever treated me so rudely as those black students. I didn't want to serve them, it's against the law!"
• black patron: "I don't get why they provoked trouble. No one gets anything out of that - they got hurt, the white patrons are angry, the Department Store might ban all of us African-Americans for good …"
• white patron: "I had to do something! Who do they think they are? And that poor waitress, I had to defend her!"
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$\blacktriangleright$  1. Description of steps of and reasons for students' actions as well as reactions
In the movie "The Butler", the priest and civil rights activist James Lawson invokes a rebellious, yet peaceful action at a meeting with black students at Fisk University. He claims that everybody "can pull himself out of segregation with patience, with persistence, with intelligence and thought" (l. 19) which is why the students are called to action.
At a Woolworth's Department Store, a group of black students sits down at the lunch counter that is supposed to only serve white customers. Upon that, the white patrons look at the group of black students and they are seemingly shocked by the audacity of the black students. The waitress even drops her tray and tells the group that they are not allowed to sit there. Unfazed by the waitress' statement, one of the students called Louis friendly asks the waitress to be served. Yet, the waitress is persistend in not serving the black group in that parlor and sends them to the colored section. However, the students don't move away - even though the patrons stare at the students and give them confused and dirty looks. In addition, the black patrons who actually sit in the colored section look nervous. Although it might look as if the situation would escalate, it simply doesn't. Louis keeps asking to be served - just to see the waitress staring at him as if he was crazy.
$\blacktriangleright$  2. Analysis of creation of suspense
In the excerpt of the movie "The Butler", black students rebel against segregational laws. In between the actions, a lot of suspense is created in order to keep the audience expectant through various means like stage directions, voice over or stylistic means.
The excerpt starts with James Lawson talking to his students. It should be noted that he uses rather strong words that are associated with war such as "we're gonna form an army" or "weapon" (l. 2). This creates the illusion that people are actually going to war and physically fight the system. However, the antithesis "this weapon is love" (l. 2) might confuse the audience since te group is going to war but they are going to fight with love - how could this possibly work out? However, the weapon of love plays such an important role within the excerpt since it is repeated quite often (l. 2 / 5). This poses the question about how that group will win a fight peacefully. The stage direction "raising her hand" (l. 4) shows that there are first objections against going to war and the statement "You can be killed." (l. 7) emphasizes the fact that there will be repercussions.
James Lawson states that the planned event will be dangerous and that people can get killed which increases the anticipation of the audience. Students who deem the risk too high are asked to leave - "you know where the door is" (l. 7) - which is a provocation. The audience expects that someone will leave due to the riskiness of the move but in fact, the stage direction points out the "No one does." (l. 9). Thus, the group commits to stick to the plan. Yet, the audience still doesn't know how the plan will actually look like. The euphemism "It's show time" (l. 11) draws attention to what will happen next. Additionally, Lawson portrays the action as a show with the purpose of entertainment and it doesn't seem as dangerous anymore.
Stage directions follow that show the students' nervousness about the coming event: "Louis [is] giving Carol an assured nod." (l. 12) or "Carol grabs Louis' hand" (ll. 14f.). Those show that Carol for instance seems to have dounts about the action whereas Louis seems to be more condident. Them holding hands is a symbol of unification and it also stands for their willingness to endure whatever may come in order to fight for their rights. The voice over "Ghandi has demonstrated for us […]" (l. 17-19) underlines the happenings and states that what is about to happen is rather an intellectual battle - it shows that others who had persisted had actually won their fight. The next voice over "With discipline, and a bit of a sense of humor." (l. 23) increases the anticipation of the audience and foreshadows that the action will be peaceful yet mind-blowing.
Even though the audience still doesn't know what is really happening when the black students sit down at the counter, they can grasp that something is happening by the stunned looks of the other patrons and by the waitress dropping her tray at the sight of the students (stage directions l. 24f.). When the students are asked to leave the white section, they just stare forward (l. 34) - they don't react on the waitress' statement and they simply don't care about the rules. When Louis turns to the waitress (l. 43), the story experiences a last moment of suspense and the audience doesn't know what is going to happen next.
$\blacktriangleright$  3.1 Comment on chances and dangers of students' action
In the movie "The Butler", black students try to fight the segregation by simply disobeying everyday-laws such as having to sit in separate section of a food court or being assigned to certain seats in a bus. Other African-American citizens have also taken part in such actions such as Rosa Parks who sat in the white section of a bus and who was put in jail for this transgression of the laws. Those actions can bring a lot of chances but also many dangers with them.
Although the ultimate goal of these actions is or was to end the segregation once and for all, other opportunities were given as well. First of all, the attention of the public sphere is drawn on the specific action or even on the whole issue. People across the coountry might hear from the action and might either support the movement or they might come up with their own actions. Hence, the purview would increase.
Such actions are also thought-provoking. Other black people might take their situation for granted and do not have the feeling that they could rebel against it. Through that action, they might wake up and might actually want to change their situation for the better. Also, people see the outcome and might be inspired by it. In addition, what happened in Nashville is a call for action - African-Americans might join the movement or ight boycot diners the same way that the group of students did. In my opinion, the movements could get bigger and could have more effect and could thus work towards a mutual goal.
I also think that resisting the system will lead to somekind of solidarity. Others might strike as well when they hear about the happenings. When Rosa Parks was jailed for sitting on a white seat in the bus, many other African-Americans protested by not riding the bus to work but walking to get there. One year late, the segregational laws for busses were abolished. So, the examples mentioned above show that people shouldn't be afraid to take action - they will serve as role-models and precursos and will inspire many more people to do the same and to defend their rights.
Even though I believe that everyone should speak up and fight for their rights, one should always consider the consequences. There might be a violent backlash for instance: the whites might react violently due to the breaking of the rules which might result in killing or wounding others - even if they're innocent bystanders. This is something that people should take into account before they take action. Also, not just other people but also the state might intervene. Police officers might observe what's happening and might arrest the violators who will only be able to get out of jail if someone bails them out. When those protesters get arrested, they will also get publicly known. Thus, their family and friends are made attackable and are put in danger since opponents might threaten them. Also, the whole future of a protester can be jeopardized - once you are listed or recorded as a protester, it is very hard to get a job. It was already hard for African-Americans to get a well-paid job back then, so why would students risk their chance of getting a better job when so many others before him have fought for the African-Americans' rights to attend university? Being part of an activists' movement might result in being excluded from university as well. An even more dangerous result of that is the return to the vicious cycle - children who come from poor families almost always cannot attend proper schools and thus don't get properly educated which is why they in turn can't get a well-paid job.
In my opinion, such actions can also result in a worsening of the situation. They sometimes just stir unnecessary trouble and other black people might think that this will cause backlashes on them as well and they don't want to be confronted with unnecessary trouble - which I can totally understand. No one wants to face consequences for something that they didn't do. In addition, whites might feel threatened by what other blacks did which might result in further restrictions of black people's rights. It also influences the image of African-Americans in general - it might get damaged due to white people claiming that black people deserve the restrictions which also results in a continuation of a vicious circle.
However, those events and their consequences are still relevant for contemporary US society. Just think about the protests against the travel ban introduced by Trump. Many judges objected against it since the travel ban is against the law. Judges from all over the country literally threw themselves into protesting against the ban and got through with it! And they were most likely inspired by the people who protested against the ban in airports like JFK in New York City. Another example are the protests against high tuition fees. If students all over the US wouldn't protest against the fees at certain times, former presidential candidate Bernie Sanders would not have known about that issue und would not have been able to support that movement. Occupy Wall Street is another example - 3,000 people protested against greed and corruption in the financial system and government with the intention of occupying Wall Street.
As you can see, there are more dangers to the students' actions than chances. Nevertheless, chances have a much more positive effect and are mainly responsible for ending segregation for instance. When a lot of people work together, they do have the power to change something bigger forever!
$\blacktriangleright$  3.2 Write a newspaper report
Anarchy erupts at innocent department store
by Sophie Becker
NASHVILLE, TN - Yesterday, a group of black students of Fisk University sat in the white section of the Woolworth Department Store's lunch parlor and asked to be served. By doing so, they actively protested against the presumably unfair treatment of having to sit in another parlor due to their skin colour.
7black students decided to sit in the white section of the food parlor of the Woolworth Department Store. When they asked to be served even though they were not sitting in their appointed section, the waitress refused to serve them, pointing out that the students could only get food in the colored section. However, the black student friendly insisted on ordering food. The waitress found herself overchallenged with that situation and called the police. The white patrons who observed the events were indignant and upon hearing that the students would not leave for the colored section, a clash between black and white people arose. Two people were severly wounded and had to go to the hospital, two were only slightly injured. The police arrived and arrested the black students who were not injured due to the violation of the law. The two black students who needed medical treatment will face their charges after their recovery.
When interrogated by the police, the black students stated that they felt that they were right - they don't think that they did something wrong, they didn't use violence and at the core, they want the same rights as the white people. A white patron however, felt otherwise: "I had to do something! Who do they think they are? And that poor waitress, I had to defend her!" He and his fellows believe that the black students behaved very disrespectful and had to intervene when the black students didn't follow the waitress' demand. Apparently, they didn't care if they hurt someone by doing so - according to one of them, they had to enforce the law until the police came. The waitress was just doing her job when she got ambushed by the black students, claiming that she was shocked and that she couldn't believe her eyes. No one had ever treated her so rudely as those students; in addition, she didn't want to serve the students because it's against the law. Even the black patrons couldn't understand what was going on, they couldn't understand why the other black group just wasn't obeying to the rules - they didn't want any trouble: "I don't get why they provoked trouble. No one gets anything out of that - they got hurt, the white patrons are angry, the Department Store might ban all of us African-Americans for good…"
The organizer of the party who crashed the Department Store is still unknown - further investigations will be instructed.
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