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Teil 2: Textproduktion

Aufgaben
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Teil 2: Textproduktion

Bearbeite Aufgabe 1 und Aufgabe 2.

Aufgabe 1 Text-based composition

1
"It is no wonder that the U.S. enjoys its privileged position in the world today. Superpower indeed." (l. 61/62)
Explain the quotation in relation to the text and then illustrate why the U.S. is, however, generally criticized by other countries.
"It is no wonder that the U.S. enjoys its privileged position in the world today.
Superpower indeed." (l. 61/62)
Explain the quotation
in relation to the text and then
illustrate why the U.S. is, however, generally criticized by other countries.
#explanation#quotation#illustrate#superpower

Aufgabe 2 Composition

2a
Some European governments are erecting fences along their borders to make Europe a fortress and to close its doors on the flood of refugees.
Discuss the pros and cons of this "closed-door" policy in regard to Europe.
Some European governments are erecting fences along their borders to make Europe a fortress and to close its doors on the flood of refugees.
Discuss the pros and cons of this "closed-door" policy in regard to Europe.
$\quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad \quad$ OR
#discussion#closed-doorpolicy
2b
Italy closed down its nuclear power plants after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. Germany will do so by 2022 due to the Fukushima catastrophe in 2011. However, there are still supporters as well as opponents of this measure.
Discuss the pros and cons of nuclear power.
Italy closed down its nuclear power plants after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. Germany will do so by 2022 due to the Fukushima catastrophe in 2011. However, there are still supporters as well as opponents of this measure.
Discuss the pros and cons of nuclear power.
#nuclearpower#discussion
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Aufgabe 1

$\blacktriangleright$  Explain quotation and illustrate why USA is critized by other countries
Erkläre das folgende Zitat und nimm Bezug auf den Text These are the 5 Reasons Why the U.S. Remains the World's Only Superpower. Im Anschluss daran sollst du anhand von Beispielen zeigen, warum die USA trotzdem von anderen Ländern kritisiert werden.
"It is no wonder that the U.S. enjoys its privileged position in the world today. Superpower indeed."
The quote "It is no wonder that the U.S. enjoys its privileged position in the world today. Superpower indeed." from the text These are the 5 Reasons Why the U.S. Remains the World's Only Superpower claims that the U.S. is a superpower with good reason. A superpower is supposed to have great course-altering influence on other nations due to its military, political and economic might. People have recently wondered whether the U.S. might still be the world's superpower since China is on the rise to take over this position. Yet, the text convinces the reader to think that the U.S. can't be beaten by any other country.
Introduction
Various parameters determine whether a country can be regarded as a superpower. The economics of that specific nation is one of those parameters. In the U.S., the economy grows with its citizens, meaning that the gross domestic product amounts to around $ \$ $ 50,000 per capita. Furthermore, 80% of all financial transactions worldwide are made in dollars. Adding to that, 87% of other currencies like yen are still listed as dollars. Thus, as long as almost every nation places so much faith in the American currency, it will be hard for any other country to catch up. The U.S. is not only an economic power, it is also a superiority in military terms. Tremendous sums are invested into the military and hence, the domination of all physical spaces like air, sea, land and space itself can be assigned to the United States. The parameter of political influence in turn manifests in different ways. Financial assistance consolidates political power and influence on a global level for instance. The U.S. spends over 30 billion dollars on financial assistance, forming strong alliances with those countries. Moreover, the U.S. have the oldest working national constitution and strong institutions which is the reason why the attractiveness of the U.S. steadily increases for potential immigrants. The high standard of living turns the U.S. into an ideal place to start a new life as well. Furthermore, Americans have a certain drive to further develop the country, they do not wish standstill. Hence, they are the prime mover when it comes to innovation and technical progress and spend 30% of the research and development budget in their own country.
Main Part I - Consent
Economics
Military
Political Influence
Culture
Innovation
This is how the U.S. perceives itself - as a superpower. However, many other nations critizise the U.S. for various reasons - of political, economic, military and social nature. Most of the criticism that will be mentioned refers to late or current events that have taken place in the United States. Several topics overshadow the superpower with regard to politics. The most recent is the travel ban that Trump has imposed upon thousands of travellers as well as immigrants from seven Muslim countries. The British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson considered the ban as divisive and utterly wrong whereas the French Foreign Secretary thinks of taking in refugees from these countries as an act of solidarity. A few years ago, the U.S. became highly unpopular in Germany when the spying scandal between the NSA and Chancellor Merkel was uncovered. This severely damaged the trust that Germany has always put in America.
Not only Germany but also Japan distrusts America - mostly because of the statements about nuclear weapons that President Trump has made recently - keep in mind that Japan suffered from atomic bombs during WW2. In an interview, he denied the potential usage of nuclear weapons because the might of the American military would be sufficient. Yet, he also stated that he would maybe use them if he had to. President Obama has been critizised as well. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 for pulling out troops of Iraq. The fact that the government spent up to $ \$ $ 825 billion and that this adds up to the already huge amount of U.S. debt is largely being ignored by American residents. But it is not being ignored by other nations who deem the U.S. responsible for attracting new followers to ISIS or the Taliban.
In addition, many countries feel that the protectionism that Trump initiated will hurt workers and businesses due to the fact that external trading partners will implement protectionist policies in retaliation and thus causing demand for exports to plummet. This would result in higher prices of goods for consumers as well. Trump has not only insisted on protectionism but focuses on tax cuts as well - favoring the rich and the businesses. The U.S. would take on more debt as its deficit.
This leads to the last reason why the U.S. are often critizised. A lot of nations consider the U.S. as being one of the most corrupt states in the world. There, it is possible to reduce taxes on the rich people just by bribing politicians - or to bribe politicians into changing their programme according to the wishes of the wealthy people. Wealth determines your education and future career as well. Depending on where you live and on how much property tax you pay, you will be able to send your children to more renowned schools and you will be able to pay the extremely high tuitions that you need to pay in order to attend college or university.
Main Part II - Criticism
Politics
Military
Economics
Social
In total, it is quite hard to differentiate between the U.S. as a superpower and the criticism that is being uttered by other countries. Per se, the definition of superpower definitely matches America but it is rather invalid in consideration of all the causes of objection. A superpower should be aware of the consequences that will follow on specific statements and actions.
Conclusion

Aufgabe 2a

$\blacktriangleright$  Discuss closed-door policy in Europe
Bei dieser Aufgabe sollst du die Politik der geschlossenen Türen in Europa in Bezug auf die Flüchtlingskrise analysieren. Gib Argumente für und gegen jene Politik an und erörtere diese.
Long lines of people in front of foreign national's offices, a tremendous amount of refugee homes mushrooming all over countries, and headlines regarding refugees in almost every newspaper. In the past few years, Europe has been constantly challenged by the floods of refugees seeking asylum there. Many countries have decided to put an end to the countless waves of people and to practice the closed-door policy, meaning that they will not allow anyone anymore into their country. But is this really the right thing to do? The pros and cons of that closed-door policy will be discussed in the following.
Introduction
Europe has always been a favoured destination for many of the politically and religiously persecuted people coming from the Middle East or Africa, promising a new beginning with new opportunities. Until a few years ago, the integration of these people had not been an issue at all for the governments of Europe's nations. However, the amount of refugees trying to get access to Europe has increased massively, leaving Europe's leaders helplessly overchallenged with the crisis they are facing. To close the doors to their countries seems reasonable, if you consider the consequences of giving all of the refugees access will entail. Firstly, closing the doors will implicate closing the doors to potential criminals as well - whether it be the persons responsible for the terror attacks in Paris or the ones that sexually assaulted several women on new year's eve in Cologne. These are extreme examples, however, people fear small-scale crimes like theft, conflicts between refugees themselves or residents or hostility towards women. Secondly, Europe's nations does not have aversions against taking in people in who are living in terror in their own countries. Yet, some refugees are only seeking entry for economic reasons - and are thus not genuine asylum seekers and in turn do not have the legal right to stay - and some do not even have proper documents. Allowing all of those people in puts governments in front of problems they are not able to solve. Budgets for refugee policy are way too small for that amount of people. And residents might severly oppose the idea of tax increases for generating more money for the refugees. In addition, European nations are trying very hard to prevent far-right political parties from emerging - closing the doors to refugees might as well close the doors to those parties.
However, the before mentioned arguments that speak for a closed-door policy regard the refugee crisis as very sober and unemotional. Europe has pledged an oath to never fail humanity. It would break with long-held values and fail to alleviate the crisis by closing ranks just to protect European populations. And by opening the borders, the countries acknowledge that they face a humanitarian crisis in need of guidance - and the finally acknowledge the severe problems that prevail in the Middle East and parts of Africa. They are the reasons why so many people flee their country of origin. Furthermore, it is common knowledge that living in a multi-ethnical environment expands horizons. Everybody benefits from living together rather than next to each other - many people see integration work not as a burden but as an enrichment to their lives. Not only do they assume responsibility by helping refugees, they also happen to make new friends. Not only has an open-door policy advantages for the individual person but also for the country in general. Since refugees strengthen the consumption, they also reinforce the economy and the revenue. In addition, refugees are much needed workers as well as professionals and can thus fill the gaps in the employment market. What is more, the nations create more jobs for teachers, social workers and many more in order to help the refugees with the new chapter of their life. Hence, both parties carry benefits from an open-door policy.
In conclusion, I think that the arguments that speak for an open-door policy outweigh the arguments that speak for a closed-door policy. Of course, one could say that closing out terrorists is a high priority but this is a very selfish approach since the people seeking asylum have constantly been living in terror and have shouldered a dangerous journey to finally reach Europe. It should be added that if people really wanted a closed-door policy, they should still try to help people on site in order to facilitate them a better, less harmful life in their country of origin.
Conclusion

Aufgabe 2b

$\blacktriangleright$  Discuss pros and cons of nuclear power
Hier sollst du Vorteile und Nachteile der Atomenergie erläuten.
During the 1960's and 1970's, nuclear power was considered the best way to produce energy. However, the awful accidents that happened in Chernobyl and Fukushima and many other places tell a whole different story. Lately, discussions about different possibilities to contain global warning in turn have raised questions about the benefits and disadvantages of nuclear energy. These will be discussed in the following.
Introduction
Global warming is one of the biggest problems of the 21st century - emissions need to be reduced at all costs, otherwise, we will face higher sea levels, severe weather conditions and much worse. Regarding that, it needs to be said that nuclear power plants have a relatively low emission of carbon dioxide and thus, nuclear power has been proposed as one of the best methods to weaken the effects of climate change. In addition, producing nuclear energy carries considerably low operating costs due to the fact that the raw material uranium is rather inexpensive. The expenses of running a nuclear power plant are relatively low as well. Furthermore, nuclear power plants or nuclear energy in general and their large power-generating capacities are able to meet industrial and city needs - something that wind and solar energy are not yet able to do. What is more, nuclear energy is not dependent on outer factors like sun or wind, so basically, nuclear energy does not have any constraints and its production can run without any disruption.
Of course, nuclear energy is relatively cheap to produce - yet, many countries are trying to shut down their nuclear power plants in the next few years. There are various reasons for that. First of all, producing nuclear energy carries the risk of tremendous accidents. Those are not only affecting the workers and the buildings directly but have disastrous effects for the direct environment and far-reaching impacts that surrounding countries suffer from it as well. The overall environmental impact is hence another disadvantage. Long-term storage sites can contaminate ground water for instance and can thus affect millions of people. Hence, the legacy of environmental contamination is exorbitant. In addition, the process of mining and refining uranium has definitely not been a clean process. Speaking of uranium - those sources are just as finite as other fuel sources. They might only last for maybe a little more than half a decade - if they are made accessible that means. The majority of known uranium lies under land that is controlled by tribes and indigenous people around the world who might not support the mining process. It is also crucial to remember that the waste that remains as a by-product lasts over 200 to 500 thousand years even though it is considered low-level radioactive! Not only can this cause accidents and radioactivity will be transferred to the environment but it is also a potential target for terrorists. If radioactive by-products or nuclear energy might fall into the wrong hands, weapons that will destroy the whole humanity can be manufactured.
In view of all the disadvantages of nuclear power, it is hence just natural, logical and necessary to shut down nuclear power plants. Many countries in Europe such as Germany or Italy are already on the right course to abolish nuclear energy. Superpowers like the U.S.A or China that have high levels of nuclear energy production should orientate themselve towards those nations to further minimize accidents and environmental problems.
Conclusion
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