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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Lernbereich Lektürehilfen
Übersicht
Brave New World
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4-6
Chapter 7-8
Chapter 9-10
Chapter 11-12
Chapter 13-15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17-18
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Setting
Context
Crooked Letter, Crook...
Summaries
Chapter 1 - 2
Chapter 3 - 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - 11
Chapter 12 - 13
Chapter 14 - 16
Chapter 17 - 19
Characters
Symbols and Symbolism
Themes and Motifs
Gran Torino
Introduction
Key Scenes
Characters
Storytelling
Setting
Themes and Motifs
Half Broke Horses
Summaries
Chapter I: Salt Draw
Chapter II: The Mirac...
Chapter III: Promises
Chapter IV: The Red S...
Chapter V: Lambs
Chapter VI: Teacher L...
Chapter VII: The Gard...
Chapter VIII: Gumshoe...
Chapter IX: The Flybo...
Epilogue: The Little ...
Family Structures
Main Characters
Lily Casey Smith
Adam Casey
Daisy Mae Casey
Helen Casey
Jim Smith
Rosemary Smith
Rex Walls
Secondary Characters
Buster Casey
Dorothy Casey
Mother Albertina
Ted Conover
Orville Stubbs
Jim Smith junior
Other Characters
Structure of the Nove...
Setting
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
L.A. Crash
Einleitung
Schlüsselszenen
Narrative Filmstruktu...
Setting
Fakten
Bevölkerungsstruktur
Kriminalität
Personen im Film
Hauptcharaktere
Officer John Ryan
Officer Tom Hansen
Cameron und Christine...
Rick und Jean Cabot
Anthony
Peter Waters
Graham Waters
Daniel Ruiz
Farhad
Nebencharaktere
Verflechtung der Haup...
Verflechtung der Haup...
Bedeutung des Titels
Themen und Motive
Rassismus
Vorurteile
Kriminalität
Isolation und Ausgren...
Dominanz
Religion
Einwanderung
Besiedelung des Weste...
9/11
Waffenrecht in den US...
Filmanalyse
Kameraführung
Licht
Musik
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
Macbeth
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
Othello
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Romeo and Juliet
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Themes and Motifs
Setting
The Great Gatsby
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
To Kill a Mockingbird
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapters 2 - 3
Chapters 4 - 6
Chapters 7 - 8
Chapters 9 - 11
Chapters 12 - 13
Chapters 14 - 15
Chapters 16 - 17
Chapters 18 - 19
Chapters 20 - 22
Chapters 23 - 25
Chapters 26 - 27
Chapters 28 - 31
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context

Chapter 17-18

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Summary Chapter 17

  • Helmholtz leaves and John and Mond continue their philosophical argument
  • they discuss religion and religious experience and Mond reads some banned religious writings to John
  • they are about the effect that religious sentiments are mainly an answer to the threat of loss, old age and death
  • as there are no losses or old age in the World State, religion is no longer necessary
  • John wonders whether it is natural to feel the existence of God and Mond explains that people believe what they have been conditioned to believe
  • John also thinks that if the people believed in the World State, they would have a reason for self-denial and chastity since God is the reason for everything noble, fine and heroic
  • however, Mond argues that no one in the World State is degraded because the people there just live by a different set of values
  • the people do not need to deal with unpleasant things and if they ever experience something negative, soma takes the pain away
  • thus, Mond considers soma as christianity without tears
  • John instead feels the need for God, poetry, danger, freedom, goodness and sin
  • Mond then states that John's wish for all those things will lead to his unhappiness
  • John agrees but holds on to his wishes

Summary Chapter 18

  • Bernard and Helmholtz say good-bye to John and Bernard apologizes for the scene in Mond's office
  • when John asks Mond if he can join them on the islands, he refuses and tells him that he wants to continue the experiment
  • John decides to seclude himself in an abandoned lighthouse in the wilderness
  • he plants his own garden and conducts rituals of self-punishment in order to rid himself of the contamination of civilization
  • Delta-Minus workers see how John whips himself and the day afterwards, reporters appear at his house in order to interview him
  • John gets angry and gets physical, demanding them to respect his solitude
  • once the incident is made public, more and more people head to John's home and he gets more and more violent
  • when thinking about Lenina, he whips himself - this scene is filmed by a man and is integrated into a feely
  • fans of the feely visit John and Lenina descends from a helicopter and walks to John with her arms open
  • again, John calls her a strumpet and starts whipping her
  • the crowd is fascinated by that spectacle and mimicks him, singing "orgy-porgy"
  • at some point in time, the helicopters leave and John collapses because of soma and the excess of sensuality
  • the next day, he remembers his actions
  • bystanders read about the orgy of atonement and visit him, only to discover him having hanged himself

Function Chapters 17-18

  • Helmholtz and Bernard have lost their fight against the system by accepting to being exiled
    • by no longer being physically present, they can't cause that much harm to the World State any longer
  • discussion about religion
    • leads to the message of Huxley's dystopia: people do no longer have a purpose in their life, they only satisfy their basic needs
    • people need religion when they are no longer in control of their life (by growing old, by experiencing loss)
    • by no longer having control over one's own life, one is automatically part of something larger as in God's plan (according to Newman)
    • in the World State, no one ever experiences something negative, which is why they feel no need for religion
  • Huxley's message conveyed through Brave New World:
    • criticism of modernity in which a technocratic government plays an important role, of social sciences that are used to control the society, and of unrestrained consumerism
    • modernity develops to the extent that it changes human nature: aspects of humanity such as love, art, passion or culture only exist as a consequence of the experience of loss and unsatisfied desire
    • desires in the World State are easily satisfied through consumerism and inconvenience as the most fundamental fact of human existence is eradicated
    • however, even the World State is full of contradictions that show that this alteration in human nature cannot take place
      • although everyone belongs to everyone, Bernard Marx seldomly has contact with women at the beginning
      • although free love is explicitly requested, Lenina dates Henry Foster exclusively and there are feelys that propagate monogamy practiced in a helicopter
      • although humans and their feelings are alterated, they still long to be pregnant or to be violent and thus need to take supplements in order to feel a relief of those emotions
  • John's self-flagellation as an attempt to hold onto his values (truth over happiness)
    • self-flagellation as a means to deal with the pressure of the world around him
    • Lenina symbolizes this pressure because John is sexually attracted to her and to the vices that he actually finds disgusting and prevalent in the World State society
    • when she arrives at his lighthouse within the crowd, he gives into his desire and participates in an orgy
    • realizing that he has given in to the thing that he loathes the most, he decides to kill himself
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