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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Lernbereich Lektürehilfen
Übersicht
Brave New World
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4-6
Chapter 7-8
Chapter 9-10
Chapter 11-12
Chapter 13-15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17-18
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Setting
Context
Crooked Letter, Crook...
Summaries
Chapter 1 - 2
Chapter 3 - 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - 11
Chapter 12 - 13
Chapter 14 - 16
Chapter 17 - 19
Characters
Symbols and Symbolism
Themes and Motifs
Gran Torino
Introduction
Key Scenes
Characters
Storytelling
Setting
Themes and Motifs
Half Broke Horses
Summaries
Chapter I: Salt Draw
Chapter II: The Mirac...
Chapter III: Promises
Chapter IV: The Red S...
Chapter V: Lambs
Chapter VI: Teacher L...
Chapter VII: The Gard...
Chapter VIII: Gumshoe...
Chapter IX: The Flybo...
Epilogue: The Little ...
Family Structures
Main Characters
Lily Casey Smith
Adam Casey
Daisy Mae Casey
Helen Casey
Jim Smith
Rosemary Smith
Rex Walls
Secondary Characters
Buster Casey
Dorothy Casey
Mother Albertina
Ted Conover
Orville Stubbs
Jim Smith junior
Other Characters
Structure of the Nove...
Setting
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
L.A. Crash
Einleitung
Schlüsselszenen
Narrative Filmstruktu...
Setting
Fakten
Bevölkerungsstruktur
Kriminalität
Personen im Film
Hauptcharaktere
Officer John Ryan
Officer Tom Hansen
Cameron und Christine...
Rick und Jean Cabot
Anthony
Peter Waters
Graham Waters
Daniel Ruiz
Farhad
Nebencharaktere
Verflechtung der Haup...
Verflechtung der Haup...
Bedeutung des Titels
Themen und Motive
Rassismus
Vorurteile
Kriminalität
Isolation und Ausgren...
Dominanz
Religion
Einwanderung
Besiedelung des Weste...
9/11
Waffenrecht in den US...
Filmanalyse
Kameraführung
Licht
Musik
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
Macbeth
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
Othello
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Romeo and Juliet
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Themes and Motifs
Setting
The Great Gatsby
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
To Kill a Mockingbird
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapters 2 - 3
Chapters 4 - 6
Chapters 7 - 8
Chapters 9 - 11
Chapters 12 - 13
Chapters 14 - 15
Chapters 16 - 17
Chapters 18 - 19
Chapters 20 - 22
Chapters 23 - 25
Chapters 26 - 27
Chapters 28 - 31
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context

Style

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Language

  • the witches' language
    • speak in trochaic tetrameters which remind the reader of simple nursery rhymes
    • extensive use of antithetical phrases such as "Lesser than Macbeth, and greater" (Act I, Scene 3, 65)
    • the fact that Macbeth also uses antitheses to express himself hints towards his close connection to the witches
    • full of paradoxical riddles which make their prophecy hard for Macbeth to use in order to actually predict the future
    • this confusion is made obvious by the way how Macbeth understands their claim that "none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth" (Act IV, Scene 1)
    • he believes that every being is born by a woman and is therefore oblivious to the fact that Macduff for instance "was from his mother's womb / Untimely ripped" (Act V, Scene 8); hence, Macbeth misunderstood the prophecy and is, as a consequence, killed by Macduff
  • Macbeth was written in iambic pentameter and in blank verse
    • this results in a vivid, down-to-earth language as well as a rhetorically elaborated language
    • for some parts, Shakespeare uses distiches in order to mark the end of a scene, a new decision or extended knowledge
    • Macbeth himself uses those distiches sometimes, which links him more closely to the only other figures who talk in rhymes - the witches
  • 7% of the whole text are written in prose (not a lot in comparison to other Shakespearean tragedies)
    • letters are written in prose (the letter that Lady Macbeth reveices from her husband)
    • characters who are members of the lower class also use prose
    • the porter uses prose - he is simple-minded and additionally, he is drunk; prose facilitates an unstoppable flow of humorous as well as suggestive remarks
    • the shift from prose to verse fulfills a specific purpose: when Lady Macduff switches to prose when talking to her little son, she implicitly establishes a certain intimacy
    • Lady Macbeth indulges in prose in her state of mental derangement as verse would appear inauthentic considering her circumstances
    • however, her doctor uses verse since his remarks are significant on a human level as well as on a governmental level
  • blood as metaphor
    • the term used more than 40 times
    • the play begins with a bloody battle and the reader learns about how Macbeth dissected a victim; also, it ends with Macbeth's bloody beheading
    • Macbeth predicts his own verdict with the proverb "It will have blood they say: blood will have blood" (Act III, Scene 4, 121), meaning that a murderer will always be detected and punished
    • blood equals guilt: an entire ocean will not be capable of washing off the guilt of Macbeth's hands after Duncan's murder; instead, the blood on his hands will color the oceans red
    • when Lady Macbeth spots some bloody streaks on her hands, she obsessively tries to wash them off and is even able to smell the blood on her hands
    • Macbeth compares himself to a criminal wading through blood with no option to return - this is an expression of Macbeth's entanglement in a cycle of violence and bloodshed that he started himself
    • references to blood stress the full horror of what is happening
  • night as keyword
    • the nighttime is traditionally associated with evil - in Macbeth, most of the violent and horrifying scenes take place at night
    • characters use the image of the nighttime in order to show the gloominess of their feelings and the evil of what they are doing
  • time as keyword
    • as time passes in the play, events become more intense and consequences more significant
    • Macbeth feels a sense of power because he is able to see into the future through the witches' prophecies
  • enumerations have a specific purpose in Macbeth
    • grotesque example of enumeration: the witches list the animals and bodyparts that go into the cauldron
    • the porter uses antithetical lists in order to illustrate the effects of alcohol
    • by listing the various dog breeds and comparing them to male characteristics, Macbeth attempts to challenge the murderers he engaged for killing Banquo and his son into securing themselves a special position as male beings

Genre

  • Macbeth is a classic tragedy since its protagonist follows a dark path of treason and violence that ultimately leads to his downfall
  • Macbeth as protagonist is politically noteworthy
  • also, he is still essentially good at the beginning of the play: he is victorious in a battle and therefore earns a new title (Thane of Cawdor)
  • only through the witches' prophecy and Macbeth's lust for power does he drift away from the righteous path
  • Macbeth is the hero as well as the villain at the same time
  • in order to cover up his first crime and keeping a hold on his regency, Macbeth continues his killing spree
  • however, Macbeth enters a downward spiral of violence that involves his growing detachment from reality and that requires Macbeth's death in the end
  • Macbeth is an unusual tragic protagonist as he willingly embraces evil although he knows that this might cost him his life
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