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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Lernbereich Lektürehilfen
Übersicht
Brave New World
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4-6
Chapter 7-8
Chapter 9-10
Chapter 11-12
Chapter 13-15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17-18
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Setting
Context
Crooked Letter, Crook...
Summaries
Chapter 1 - 2
Chapter 3 - 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - 11
Chapter 12 - 13
Chapter 14 - 16
Chapter 17 - 19
Characters
Symbols and Symbolism
Themes and Motifs
Gran Torino
Introduction
Key Scenes
Characters
Storytelling
Setting
Themes and Motifs
Half Broke Horses
Summaries
Chapter I: Salt Draw
Chapter II: The Mirac...
Chapter III: Promises
Chapter IV: The Red S...
Chapter V: Lambs
Chapter VI: Teacher L...
Chapter VII: The Gard...
Chapter VIII: Gumshoe...
Chapter IX: The Flybo...
Epilogue: The Little ...
Family Structures
Main Characters
Lily Casey Smith
Adam Casey
Daisy Mae Casey
Helen Casey
Jim Smith
Rosemary Smith
Rex Walls
Secondary Characters
Buster Casey
Dorothy Casey
Mother Albertina
Ted Conover
Orville Stubbs
Jim Smith junior
Other Characters
Structure of the Nove...
Setting
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
L.A. Crash
Einleitung
Schlüsselszenen
Narrative Filmstruktu...
Setting
Fakten
Bevölkerungsstruktur
Kriminalität
Personen im Film
Hauptcharaktere
Officer John Ryan
Officer Tom Hansen
Cameron und Christine...
Rick und Jean Cabot
Anthony
Peter Waters
Graham Waters
Daniel Ruiz
Farhad
Nebencharaktere
Verflechtung der Haup...
Verflechtung der Haup...
Bedeutung des Titels
Themen und Motive
Rassismus
Vorurteile
Kriminalität
Isolation und Ausgren...
Dominanz
Religion
Einwanderung
Besiedelung des Weste...
9/11
Waffenrecht in den US...
Filmanalyse
Kameraführung
Licht
Musik
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
Macbeth
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
Othello
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Romeo and Juliet
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Themes and Motifs
Setting
The Great Gatsby
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
To Kill a Mockingbird
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapters 2 - 3
Chapters 4 - 6
Chapters 7 - 8
Chapters 9 - 11
Chapters 12 - 13
Chapters 14 - 15
Chapters 16 - 17
Chapters 18 - 19
Chapters 20 - 22
Chapters 23 - 25
Chapters 26 - 27
Chapters 28 - 31
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context

Context

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The Great Gatsby: Context

Author

  • Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald was born on September 24th, 1896
  • although being rather mediocre at school, he enrolled at Princeton in 1913 but never graduated and joined the army in 1917 instead
  • he became a second lietenant and fell in love at a war camp with Zelda Sayre who agreed to marry him (she delayed the wedding until Fitzgerald proved to be a successful writer due to her want for wealth)
  • This Side of Paradise earned him a lot of success and Zeldy finally married him
  • Fitzgerald wove a lot his personal experience into The Great Gatsby
    • Daisy Buchanan was inspired by Fitzgerald's wife Zelda Sayre
    • Nick Carraway has a similar background to Fitzgerald (coming from Minnesota, being thoughtful, attending an Ivy League University, moving to New York after the war)
    • Jay Gatsby also shares some details with Fitzgerald (falling in love with a woman at a war camp, yearning and desire for wealth and luxury)
    • Fitzgerald lived the same lifestyle full of parties and celebrities as Gatsby in order to please Zelda
    • just like Gatsby, Fitzgerald was driven by his love for a woman who represented everything he wanted, even though she pointed him towards everything he hated (materialism, moral emptiness and hypocrisy)
  • after The Great Depression, Fitzgerald became an alcoholic which clearly affected his writing
  • he only published one more novel (Tender is the Night in 1934) and a few short stories which he sold to a newspaper
  • while he worked on the novel The Last Tycoon he died due to a heart attack at the age of 44

The Roaring 20s

  • The Great Gatsby came into being shortly after World War I and people needed to recover from the horror of it; thus, they felt that it was their right to have fun
  • caution and codes of conduct no longer mattered and people basically reinvented themselves
  • the American Dream resurfaced during that era: leaving behind poverty and hopelessness and hence moving into the upper class became the new goal
  • those who survived the First World War were called members of the Lost Generation (a term first introduced by Gertrude Stein); they compensated the terrible things they had experienced with drinking, dancing or traveling
  • this was highly influenced and affected by the Prohibition (the amendment that banned the sale as well as the consupmtion of alcohol)
  • Prohibition also paved the way to amassing tremendous wealth through bootlegging
  • the time period just before the Great Depression was a time of financial boom and created the career of bondsmen
  • newly emancipated women smoked, drinked and danced $\rightarrow$ flapper girls

Modernism

  • Modernism: a literary as well as artistic movement that started at the beginning of the 20th century
  • writers focused on the individual, internal experience and questioned the nature of reality as well as they created new literary forms
  • modernist elements in Gatsby:
    • reference to artist El Greco (an artist of the 16th century who is called the first modernist)
    • poetic distortions of reality ("grotesque rose", "blue smoke")
    • the appearance of technology in form of cars or telephones which are both dangerous (crime is conducted through telephones, a car ultimately kills Myrtle Wilson) and seductive
  • however, the portrayal of characters is more realist than modernist, since Fitzgerald puts them into a satiricial context, thus hinting at the fals promise of the American Dream; also, the characters lack that specific modernist insight into their inner world

Reception

"The clown Fitzgerald rushes to his death in nine short chapters." - H.L. Mencken of The Baltimore Evening Sun
"A curious book, a mystical, glamorous story of today." - Edwin Clark of The New York Times
  • at the time of publication, The Great Gatsby was not as commercially successful as Fitzgerald's other novels such as The Beautiful and Damned
  • it only sold sold 21,000 copies and earned Fitzgerald $2000 in the first year after the publication and received very mixed reviews
  • Fitzgerald received letters of praise from contemporaries T. S. Eliot, Edith Wharton, and Willa Cather
  • yet, he was desperate for public recognition of his normal audience
  • some critics felt that the novel was far too constructed when Fitzgerald's goal actually was to create a literary work that would prove him to be a serious novelist who could be compared to other great authors of his time
  • one of the reasons that The Great Gatsby was not as popular as Fitzgerald wished it to be was the fact that it did not contain a strong female character when - at that time - women tended to be the main audience for novels in general
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