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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Lernbereich Lektürehilfen
Übersicht
Brave New World
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4-6
Chapter 7-8
Chapter 9-10
Chapter 11-12
Chapter 13-15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17-18
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Setting
Context
Crooked Letter, Crook...
Summaries
Chapter 1 - 2
Chapter 3 - 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10 - 11
Chapter 12 - 13
Chapter 14 - 16
Chapter 17 - 19
Characters
Symbols and Symbolism
Themes and Motifs
Gran Torino
Introduction
Key Scenes
Characters
Storytelling
Setting
Themes and Motifs
Half Broke Horses
Summaries
Chapter I: Salt Draw
Chapter II: The Mirac...
Chapter III: Promises
Chapter IV: The Red S...
Chapter V: Lambs
Chapter VI: Teacher L...
Chapter VII: The Gard...
Chapter VIII: Gumshoe...
Chapter IX: The Flybo...
Epilogue: The Little ...
Family Structures
Main Characters
Lily Casey Smith
Adam Casey
Daisy Mae Casey
Helen Casey
Jim Smith
Rosemary Smith
Rex Walls
Secondary Characters
Buster Casey
Dorothy Casey
Mother Albertina
Ted Conover
Orville Stubbs
Jim Smith junior
Other Characters
Structure of the Nove...
Setting
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
L.A. Crash
Einleitung
Schlüsselszenen
Narrative Filmstruktu...
Setting
Fakten
Bevölkerungsstruktur
Kriminalität
Personen im Film
Hauptcharaktere
Officer John Ryan
Officer Tom Hansen
Cameron und Christine...
Rick und Jean Cabot
Anthony
Peter Waters
Graham Waters
Daniel Ruiz
Farhad
Nebencharaktere
Verflechtung der Haup...
Verflechtung der Haup...
Bedeutung des Titels
Themen und Motive
Rassismus
Vorurteile
Kriminalität
Isolation und Ausgren...
Dominanz
Religion
Einwanderung
Besiedelung des Weste...
9/11
Waffenrecht in den US...
Filmanalyse
Kameraführung
Licht
Musik
Prüfungsaufgaben zur ...
Macbeth
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
Othello
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Romeo and Juliet
Introduction
Summaries
Act I
Act II
Act III
Act IV
Act V
Characters
Themes and Motifs
Setting
The Great Gatsby
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context
Good To Know
To Kill a Mockingbird
Introduction
Summaries
Chapter 1
Chapters 2 - 3
Chapters 4 - 6
Chapters 7 - 8
Chapters 9 - 11
Chapters 12 - 13
Chapters 14 - 15
Chapters 16 - 17
Chapters 18 - 19
Chapters 20 - 22
Chapters 23 - 25
Chapters 26 - 27
Chapters 28 - 31
Characters
Interpretation
Themes
Motifs
Symbols
Style
Context

Act IV

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Summary Scene 1

  • Iago goads that it is not a crime for a woman to be naked with a man, if nothing happens and that if he had given a handkerchief to his wife, it would be up to her to decide what to do with it
  • Othello is enraged by those implications of Desdemona's betrayal and falls into a frenzy
  • he urges Iago to tell him what Cassio has told Iago confidentially
  • eventually, Iago tells Othello that Cassio has told him that he has slept with Desdemona upon which Othello faints
  • Cassio enters and Iago explains that Othello suffers from epilepsy and that they should just leave him
  • however, Iago asks Cassio to leave and to come back once Othello has awoken and left
  • Othello gains consciousness and Iago explains that Cassio will come back to talk
  • Iago urges Othello to hide and to observe the conversation, especially Cassio's face as he wants to make Cassio retell the story of the details on how he slept with Desdemona
  • Othello withdraws and afterwards, Iago briefs the audience that he will talk with Cassio about the prostitute Bianca and not Desdemona
  • hence, Othello will believe that they are talking about Desdemona and will thus have proof that Cassio has an affair with Desdemona
  • Iago talks with Cassio about Bianca; Othello sees his smiles and laughter but cannot hear the details and believes that Cassio is joking about how much Desdemona loves him
  • when Cassio claims that he does not want to see Bianca anymore, Bianca enters
  • Bianca is furious and accuses Cassio of having given her the handkerchief that belongs to another love of Cassio's
  • she then threatens that if Cassio would not show up for dinner at her house, he should stay away forever
  • Othello comes out of hiding after Cassio has left and thinks about how he can murder Cassio
  • he goes on about his love for Desdemona
  • after Iago reminds him of his purpose, Othello wants to kill her as well, but still has trouble believing his noble and honest wife would betray him with his lieutenant
  • Othello concludes that he will poison his wife but Iago interferes and advises Othello to strangle her in the bed
  • also, Iago promises to arrange Cassio's death
  • Desdemona enters, accompanied by Lodovico who has a message from the Venetian duke
  • Lodovico asks Othello about Cassio and Desdemona answers instead of Othello, which strongly irritates him
  • the letter informs Othello that he is to go back to Venice and that Cassio is to stay in Cyprus as his replacement
  • upon hearing that they will leave Cyprus, Desdemona is happy
  • Othello strikes her and Lodovico is horrified because of Othello's lacking self-control
  • Desdemona cries and leaves the stage; Lodovico asks Othello to call her back
  • Othello brings her back, just to insult her as a false and promiscuous woman
  • additionally, he tells Lodovico that he will obey and return to Venice; he orders Desdemona to leave and storms off himself afterwards
  • Lodovico is bewildered that the self-controlled Othello he knew no longer exists and wonders whether he had turned mad
  • Iago hints to Lodovico that Othello should be watched, increasing Lodovico's suspicion that Othello is going mad

Summary Scene 2

  • Othello interrogates Emilia about Desdemona's behavior but Emilia assures him that nothing immodest has taken place between her mistress and Cassio
  • Emilia summons Desdemona upon Othello's request and Othello talks to his wife in private, telling her that he can't stand the thought that some of their future children might not be his
  • Desdemona denies being unfaithful and Othello uses sarcasm to beg her pardon and storms out of the room
  • Emilia enters and soothes her mistress
  • Desdemona asks Emilia to put on the wedding sheets for the night
  • Iago is brought in and Desdemona asks why Othello is treating her like a prostitute
  • Emilia believes that Othello has been misled by some villain while Iago thinks that Othello is just upset because of political business
  • Emilia and Desdemona are called to dinner
  • Roderigo enters and is furious, claiming that he has had enough of his romantic quest and plans to withdraw
  • Iago tells Roderigo that Cassio will take over Othello's place, saying that Othello will be sent to Mauritania in Africa
  • also, he tells Roderigo that in order to prevent Othello from taking Desdemona to Africa, they would have to get rid of Cassio straight away
  • thus, Roderigo is persuaded to participate in Iago's plot to murder Othello and Cassio

Summary Scene 3

  • after supper, Othello orders Desdemona to go to bed and to dismiss Emilia while he takes a walk with Lodovico
  • preparing for the night, Desdemona seems to know what will await her, saying that if she dies before Emilia, Emilia should use the wedding sheets as burial shroud
  • dressing for bed, Desdemona sings a song called "Willow"
  • she has learned the song - about a woman who was left by her love - from her mother's maid who died while she sang the song after having been left by her lover
  • Desdemona contemplates about adultery and asks Emilia if she would cheat on her husband
  • Emilia responds that she would not betray her husband for jewels or clothes but she also believes that women also have certain desires for sex and infidelity
  • further, Emilia thinks that men who betray their wives have themselves to blame if their wives cheat on them
  • Desdemona then claims that she prefers to answer bad deeds with good deeds and readies herself for bed

Function

  • Act IV, Scene 1 as a reverse of Act II, Scene 3
    • in Act II, Othello gently led his wife back to bed after calming the quarrel between his soldiers ("the Turk within" them, meaning the savage within them)
    • the Turkish people were associated with savages in the Western societies of the 17th century
    • when Othello brutally orders his wife to bed in Act IV, Scene 1, his inner Turk seizes control over him
  • Lodovico functions as a reminder of Othello's transformation
    • when standing before the senate, Othello showed great physical and verbal presence
    • Iago has brought about Othello's savage side in Cyprus - he loses control over his speech and his movements
    • he transformed from the noble officer to a person distorted by jealousy and rage
  • Cyprus as contrasting place to Venice
    • normal structures and laws cease to function
    • however, it is still Venetian territory and the arrival of Lodovico manifests the Venetian presence, reminding Othello of securing his reputation
  • Othello gets lost in his beliefs without having actual proof
    • Emilia's testimony as evidence of Desdemona's innocence is considered a lie by Othello
    • he is already biased and Emilia's declarations are not in line with what he believes
    • Othello does not accept any evidence in Desdemona's favor because in his opinion, Emilia and Desdemona are both liars
    • still, he makes her swear that she is being honest with him - in his view, she thus burdens herself with more lies which makes his intention to murder her more justified
    • in conclusion, Othello loses every grip to reality (he exaggerates in comparing Desdemona having an affair with the breeding of summer flies)
  • Desdemona's forgiving and obedient nature manifests
    • goes to a state dinner although Othello stroke her
    • goes to bed and dismisses Emilia when Othello orders her to do so
    • even though Othello insults and offends Desdemona repeatedly, she still loves him
    • in her opinion, Othello is still noble and graceful to her
  • the importance of chastity in the Renaissance epoch
    • Desdemona views her chastity as her most valuable asset
    • Emilia thinks that the ideal of female chastity is exaggerated and suggests that Desdemona should look elsewhere for happiness and that she should not accept being abused by Othello
    • Emilia also offers a rather modern view as she argues that women and men are the same and that women are human beings with needs and desires
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